TABLE 1

PCR-based studies that have included PCR detection of E. moshkovskii rDNA h

CountryMethodNo. of patientsSample selection criterionNo. of samples tested% positive samples Reference(s)
E. histolytica a E. dispar a E. moshkovskii a E. moshkovskii only
BangladeshNested PCR109 1091636216 427
GhanaPCR-RLB246 200450 428
IndiaNested PCR-RFLP c 746Microscopy positive681997251 429
ThailandMultiplex PCR Microscopy positive30132000 430
IranNested PCR d 1,037Microscopy positive88010011 431
IndiaNested PCR-RFLP d 1,720Microscopy positive/culture positive2023079161 432
IndiaNested multiplex PCR1,720Microscopy positive/culture positive2023584180 433
TurkeyNested PCR-RFLP d 100Diarrhea cases10023 c NA2NA 434
AustraliaNested PCR d 1,246MSM/microscopy positive545653115 44
AustraliaNested PCR d 5,921Microscopy positive1105575024 435, 436
TunisiaNested PCR d Microscopy positive2708970 437
IndiaNested multiplex PCR e Microscopy positive202358518NA 438
TanzaniaNested PCR d 136HIV positive1364 c 51312 439
622Controls 0000
ThailandMultiplex real-time (FRET) PCR Microscopy positive3368510 61
IndiaNested multiplex PCR e 246Microscopy positive4912298NA 440
NA i PCR-pyrosequencingNAMicroscopy positive/E. histolytica-E. dispar PCR positive102178600 64
IranPCR f 3,825Microscopy positive5839352 441
BrazilPCR-sequencing Microscopy positive/culture positive2914663 b 3 b 63
EcuadorPCR-RLB g 674Microscopy positive1010800 442
PakistanNested multiplex PCR e 129Diarrhea cases12991919NA 45
151Controls1511274NA
MalaysiaPCR f 500 50061731 46, 443 445
MalaysiaNested multiplex PCR f 426 4269411 446
  • a Including mixed infections.

  • b DNA isolated from culture.

  • c Antigen detection only.

  • d PCR primers are described in reference 427.

  • e PCR primers are described in reference 433.

  • f PCR primers are described in reference 430.

  • g PCR primers are described in reference 428.

  • h Abbreviations: RLB, reverse line blot; RFLP, restriction fragment length polymorphism; FRET, fluorescence resonance energy transfer; MSM, men who have sex with men; NA, not available.

  • i Samples from the indicated study were from patients that were tested in Sweden, Denmark, and The Netherlands.