TABLE 6

PCR-based assays for detection and molecular characterization of microsporidia f

SpeciesAmplification methodDetection method(s)TargetSample type(s)Reference
E. intestinalis, E. cuniculi, E. hellem Real-time PCR e Hydrolysis probeSSU rDNAControls 477
E. intestinalis, Encephalitozoon speciesReal-time PCRFRET probes and MCASSU rDNAStool (spiked) 478
E. intestinalis Real-time PCRHydrolysis probeSSU rDNAStool, blood, urine, tissue biopsy specimens, and bronchopulmonary specimens 479
E. bieneusi Real-time PCRHydrolysis probeSSU rDNAStool 480
E. bieneusi, Encephalitozoon speciesPCR-hybridizationChemiluminescenceSSU rDNAStool, urine (spiked) 481
E. bieneusi Real-time PCRHydrolysis probeSSU rDNAStool 482
E. bieneusi, E. cuniculi, E. hellem, and E. intestinalis PCRMicroarraySSU rDNAStool 260
E. bieneusi, E. intestinalis Real-time PCR a , b Hydrolysis probeSSU rDNAStool 266
E. bieneusi, E. intestinalis PCRGel electrophoresisSSU rDNAStool 483
E. bieneusi Multiplex real-time PCRHydrolysis probeITSPositive stool 457
Encephalitozoon species SSU rDNA 457
E. bieneusi PCRSequencingSSU rDNAPositive stool 37
E. bieneusi, E. intestinalis Multiplex PCR c LuminexSSU rDNAStool 193
E. bieneusi, Encephalitozoon speciesReal-time PCRSYBR green and MCASSU rDNAStool 484
E. bieneusi, E. intestinalis Real-time PCR b , d , e Hydrolysis probeSSU rDNAStool 485
  • a E. bieneusi primers and probe are described in reference 482.

  • b E. intestinalis primers and probe are described in reference 479.

  • c E. intestinalis primers and probe are described in reference 457.

  • d E. bieneusi primers and probe are described in reference 480.

  • e Singleplex PCRs in parallel.

  • f Abbreviations: SSU, small subunit; ITS, internal transcribed spacer; HSP, heat shock protein; RFLP, restriction fragment length polymorphism; MCA, melt curve analysis; FRET, fluorescent resonance energy transfer.