TABLE 7

PCR-based assays for detection and molecular characterization of intestinal nematodes h

SpeciesAmplification methodDetection method(s)Target(s)Sample type(s) (no. of samples)Reference
O. bifurcum Nested PCRGel electrophoresisITS2Stool (119) 486
N. americanus, O. bifurcum Nested PCR a Gel electrophoresisITS2Stool (262) 13
A. duodenale, N. americanus Nested PCR b Gel electrophoresisITS2Stool (503) 487
Ancylostoma, N. americanus, O. bifurcum Multiplex real-time PCRHydrolysis probeITS2Stool (339) 328
A. lumbricoides Nested PCRGel electrophoresis and sequencingCytbCoprolites (9) 488
A. lumbricoides Nested PCRGel electrophoresis and sequencingITS1, CytbStool (13) 318
S. stercoralis Real-time PCRHydrolysis probeSSU rDNAStool (370) 354
A. duodenale, N. americanus, Trichostrongylus Nested PCRGel electrophoresisITS1-5.8S-ITS2Stool (203) 489
Trichuris vulpis, T. trichiura Nested PCRGel electrophoresisSSU rDNAHuman stool (80), dog stool (79) 311
Ancylostoma, N. americanus, A. lumbricoides, S. stercoralis Multiplex real-time PCR c , d Hydrolysis probeITS2 (Ancylostoma, N. americanus), ITS1 (A. lumbricoides), SSU rDNA (S. stercoralis)Stool (1,312) 319, 321, 333
Ancylostoma, N. americanus, A. lumbricoides, S. stercoralis Multiplex real-time PCR e Hydrolysis probeITS2 (Ancylostoma, N. americanus), ITS1 (A. lumbricoides), SSU rDNA (S. stercoralis)Stool (78, 229) 161, 320
S. stercoralis Real-time PCRHydrolysis probe28SSpiked stool 353
S. stercoralis (and O. viverrini)Real-time multiplex PCRFRET probes-MCASSU rDNAStool 356
Ancylostoma, N. americanus, A. lumbricoides, S. stercoralis Multiplex PCR e Luminex detectionITS2 (Ancylostoma, N. americanus), ITS1 (A. lumbricoides), SSU rDNA (S. stercoralis)Stool (319) 322
Ancylostoma, N. americanus, A. lumbricoides, S. stercoralis, T. trichiura Real-time PCR c , d Hydrolysis probeITS2 (Ancylostoma, N. americanus), ITS1 (A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura), SSU rDNA (S. stercoralis)Stool (525) 18
T. trichiura, A. lumbricoides Real-time PCR f Hydrolysis probeSSU rDNA (T. trichiura), ITS1 (A. lumbricoides)Stool 309
N. americanus Real-time PCRSYBR greenITS2Stool (216) 332
A. duodenale, N. americanus Nested PCR g Gel ElectrophoresisITS2Stool (634) 490
N. americanus, A duodenale, A. ceylanicum, A. caninum, A. braziliense Real-time PCRSYBR green-HRMITS2Stool (634) 330
S. stercoralis Real-time PCR d Hydrolysis probeSSU rDNAStool (160) 355
Ancylostoma, N. americanus Real-time PCR c Hydrolysis probeITS2Stool (195) 329
  • a O. bifurcum primers are described in reference 486.

  • b N. americanus PCR primers and probes are described in reference 13.

  • c A. duodenale and N. americanus PCR primers and probes are described in reference 328.

  • d S. stercoralis PCR primers and probe are described in reference 354.

  • e PCR primers and probes are described in reference 319.

  • f A. lumbricoides PCR primers are described in reference 319.

  • g PCR primers are described in reference 487.

  • h Abbreviations: SSU, small subunit; ITS, internal transcribed spacer; MCA, melt curve analysis; HRM, high-resolution melt curve analysis; Cytb, cytochrome b; FRET, fluorescent resonance energy transfer.