TABLE 9

PCR-based assays for detection and molecular characterization of Schistosoma infections f

SpeciesAmplification methodDetection methodTarget(s)Sample type(s)Reference
S. mansoni PCRGel electrophoresis S. mansoni tandem repeatAdult worm 385
S. haematobium PCRGel electrophoresis S. haematobium tandem repeatAdult worm 386
S. mansoni PCRGel electrophoresis S. mansoni tandem repeatStool, serum 387
S. mansoni PCR a Gel electrophoresis S. mansoni tandem repeatStool 388
S. mansoni PCRGel electrophoresisMitochondrial DNAStool 511
S. japonicum PCRGel electrophoresisMitochondrial DNAStool 511
Schistosoma genusPCRGel electrophoresis28SUrine 512
S. mansoni PCRGel electrophoresis28SUrine 512
S. japonicum PCRGel electrophoresis28SUrine 512
S. haematobium, S. bovis, S. intercalatum PCRGel electrophoresisITSUrine 512
S. mansoni Real-time PCRSYBR greenSSU rDNA 513
S. japonicum Real-time PCRSYBR green nad1 Stool 514
S. mansoni Multiplex real-time PCRHydrolysis probe cox1 Stool 394
S. haematobium Multiplex real-time PCRHydrolysis probe cox1 Stool 394
Schistosoma genusReal-time PCRHydrolysis probeITS2Urine 458
S. japonicum Real-time PCRHydrolysis probe nad1 Stool 515
S. mansoni PCR a Gel electrophoresis S. mansoni tandem repeatStool 516
Schistosoma genus Real-time PCRHydrolysis probe S. mansoni tandem repeatPlasma 397
Schistosoma genusReal-time PCR c Hydrolysis probeITS2Vaginal lavage 395
S. japonicum LAMPVisualRetrotransposon SjR2 repeatSerum 517
S. mansoni PCR a Gel electrophoresis S. mansoni tandem repeatStool 518
Schistosoma genusPCR-ELISA a ELISA S. mansoni tandem repeatStool 519
S. mansoni PCR a , b Gel electrophoresis S. mansoni tandem repeat and 28SStool 520
S. haematobium PCR e Gel electrophoresis S. haematobium tandem repeatCerebrospinal fluid 521
Schistosoma genusReal-time PCR d Hydrolysis probe S. mansoni tandem repeatSerum 383
S. haematobium PCR e Gel electrophoresis S. haematobium tandem repeatUrine 391
S. haematobium PCR e Gel electrophoresis S. haematobium tandem repeatUrine 392
S. japonicum Nested PCRGel electrophoresis S. japonicum repeat sequenceSerum 522
S. mansoni PCR a Gel electrophoresis S. mansoni tandem repeatUrine 523
S. japonicum PCRGel electrophoresisRetrotransposon SjR2 repeatStool 524
S. mansoni PCR a Gel electrophoresis S. mansoni tandem repeatStool 525
S. mansoni Nested PCR a Gel electrophoresis S. mansoni tandem repeatSpiked stool 526
S. haematobium PCRGel electrophoresis nad1 and cox1 Urine 393
Schistosoma genusReal-time PCRHydrolysis probe28SStool, urine, serum 398
Schistosoma genusReal-time PCR d Hydrolysis probe S. mansoni tandem repeatPlasma 384
Schistosoma genusReal-time PCR c Hydrolysis probeITS2Urine 389
S. mansoni PCR a Gel electrophoresis S. mansoni tandem repeatUrine 527
Schistosoma genusReal-time PCR c Hydrolysis probeITS2Urine, vaginal lavage 396
  • a PCR primers are described in reference 387.

  • b PCR primers are described in reference 512.

  • c PCR primers and probe are described in reference 458.

  • d PCR primers and probe are described in reference 397.

  • e PCR primers are described in reference 386.

  • f Abbreviations: RFLP, restriction fragment length polymorphism; SSU, small subunit; ITS, internal transcribed spacer; cox1, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene; nad1, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1.