TABLE 3

Species distribution of CoNS in human clinical samples in recent studies (published since 2000)

ParameterValue or description in study b
Petinaki et al., 2001 (614)Cuevas et al., 2004 c (615)Sivadon et al., 2005 d (616)Arciola et al., 2006 e (130)Gatermann et al., 2007 (617)Koksal et al., 2009 (618)Jain et al., 2011 f (619)Shin et al., 2011 (91)
Study design parameters
    CountryGreeceSpainFranceItalyGermanyTurkeyIndiaSouth Korea
    No. of CoNS isolates4503692126014942009851
    Underlying infectionNot specified g Not specified c BJIPJI, surgical wound revisionBSI, CRBIBSICRBICAPD peritonitis
    Method of identificationAPI ID 32 Staph, BBL Crystal GP ID kitSPSP, sodA API Staph, API ID 32 StaphSP, sodA API ID 32 StaphSP16S rRNA, tuf, sodA
% Identified staphylococci
    S. auricularis 1.0
    S. capitis 3.536.11.91.07.512.23.9
    S. caprae 1.90.31.4 5.9
    S. chromogenes 0.5 0.21.5
    S. cohnii 1.2<1.00.51.21.01.08.2
    S. equorum 0.2
    S. epidermidis 50.05671.236.167.443.523.566.7
    S. haemolyticus 14.852.42.811.911.536.711.8
    S. hominis a 11.1184.23.27.5/1.09.53.0
    S. lentus 2.5
    S. lugdunensis 2.0 2.80.53.09.0
    S. pasteuri 1.90.1 2.0
    S. saprophyticus 5.719 0.10.42.5
    S. schleiferi 0.10.61.0
    S. sciuri 1.2 0.10.6
    S. simulans 2.011.40.11.22.01.0
    S. warneri 4.047.12.11.84.0 7.8
    S. xylosis 4.0<1.0 0.10.85.013.3
  • a If data for subspecies were provided, the percentages are separated by a slash, as follows: S. hominis subsp. hominis/S. hominis subsp. novobiosepticus. Differences from 100% are due to ambiguously and nonidentified isolates.

  • b Differences from 100% are due to ambiguously and nonidentified isolates or nongiven coagulase-positive isolates. Abbreviations: BJI, bone and joint infection; BSI, bloodstream infection; CAPD, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis; CRBI, catheter-related bloodstream infection; IVD, intravenous device; PJI, (peri)prosthetic joint infection; SP, standard procedures (based on the work of Kloos and Schleifer [407] and subsequent modifications and supplementations).

  • c Data are from the fifth study period, carried out in 2002. The most frequent sources of isolation of CoNS were blood (32%), catheter tips (20%), wounds and abscesses (21%), and urine (12%); 8% were represented by other CoNS species.

  • d Data comprise about 60% BJIs related to revision arthroplasty surgery and 40% due to fracture nonunions, contiguous osteitis, and other entities.

  • e Data are percentages of overall prevalence among all 1,490 clinical isolates, including 530 (46.9%) S. aureus isolates.

  • f Data are given for IVD tip examination (see the respective publication for results of examination of blood samples and skin swabs from the site of IVD insertion).

  • g Comprising blood cultures (41.1%), wounds (22%), vascular catheters (11.1%), urine cultures (6.2%), and tissue culture foci (19.6%).