TABLE 5

Percentages of clinical CoNS isolates categorized as antibiotic resistant toward various antibiotic agents

ParameterValue or description in study for given species a
Hellmark et al., 2009 (499) Mendes et al., 2010 (497) b Putnam et al., 2010 (543) Kresken et al., 2011 (75) c Mendes et al., 2012 (64) Gordon et al., 2012 (65) d Barros et al., 2012 (573) Flamm et al., 2013 (534) e Zhanel et al., 2013 (496)
S. epidermidisMS-CoNSMR-CoNSCoNSS. epidermidisS. haemolyticusS. epidermidisS. epidermidisS. haemolyticusMS-CoNSMR-CoNSMS-SEMR-SE
Study design parameters
    No. of isolates334201,3882,510148102711006427848347585
    CountrySwedenEuropeEuropeWorldwideGermanyGermanyUSAUSABrazilUSAUSACanadaCanada
    SourcePJIDiverseDiverseMainly BSI, also cSSSIDiverseDiverseMainly BSIDiverseMainly BSIDiverseDiverseDiverseDiverse
% Resistant isolates
    PenicillinNDNDNDND91.1/88.0/94.695.9/93.9/93.1ND98.095.3NDNDNDND
    Oxacillin840.0100.076.482.7/83.1/85.590.4/90.9/89.273.279.087.50.0100.00.0100.0
    Gentamicin795.558.8ND65.5/56.3/60.880.8/84.8/87.340.846.073.43.624.634.778.8
    Erythromycin6735.772.366.1NDND69.086.064.139.968.3NDND
    Clindamycin675.537.333.4NDND40.974.046.913.034.637.686.7
    Q/DND0.01.60.5NDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDND
    ClarithromycinNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDND64.484.7
    Ciprofloxacin79NDNDNDNDND70.4ND71.923.061.147.296.5
    LevofloxacinND8.667.954.1NDNDND77.0ND21.959.647.095.6
    Moxifloxacin64NDNDND42.3/52.1/47.357.5/51.5/60.8NDNDNDNDND39.094.1
    SXT829.148.6NDNDND47.973.053.120.144.733.980.0
    ChloramphenicolNDNDNDNDNDNDNDND25.0NDNDNDND
    Fusidic acid39NDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDND
    Rifampin39NDNDNDNDNDND35.010.9NDNDNDND
    DoxycyclineNDNDNDND10.1/9.2/6.112.3/12.1/5.9NDNDNDNDNDNDND
    TetracyclineND10.519.9NDNDND11.318.018.77.618.6NDND
    Tigecycline0NDNDND0.0/0.0/0.71.4/4.5/0.0NDNDNDNDND0.00.0
    Daptomycin30.00.10.0NDNDNDNDNDNDND0.00.0
    Linezolid00.20.40.80.0/0.0/0.00.0/0.0/0.018.32.0ND0.41.70.00.0
    Vancomycin00.00.00.00.0/0.0/0.00.0/0.0/0.00.0NDND0.00.00.00.0
    TeicoplaninND3.3 (0.0) f 12.2 (0.5) f 0.4NDNDNDNDND0.00.0NDND
    MupirocinNDNDNDNDNDNDNDND7.8NDNDNDND
  • a Abbreviations: ND, not done; Q/D, quinupristin-dalfopristin; SXT, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; SE, S. epidermidis; MS, methicillin susceptible; MR, methicillin resistant; BSI, bloodstream-related infection; cSSSI, complicated skin and skin structure infection; PJI, prosthetic joint infection.

  • b Besides those for other and unidentified CoNS species, mainly S. epidermidis (n = 953), S. haemolyticus (n = 114), S. hominis (n = 176), S. lugdunensis (n = 25), S. saprophyticus (n = 30), S. warneri (n = 36), and S. xylosus (n = 24) data have been included. Only EUCAST interpretative criteria-based data are given; for CLSI criteria-based data, see the relevant publication.

  • c Data are shown for three collection periods, as follows: 2005/2007/2009.

  • d Data are shown only for isolates characterized as most disseminated.

  • e For methicillin-susceptible CoNS, besides those for other and unidentified CoNS species (n = 188), mainly S. capitis (n = 15), S. epidermidis (n = 57), S. haemolyticus (n = 5), S. hominis (n = 6), and S. warneri (n = 5) data are shown; for methicillin-resistant CoNS, besides those for other and unidentified CoNS species (n = 330), mainly S. epidermidis (n = 102), S. haemolyticus (n = 5), S. hominis (n = 10), S. lugdunensis (n = 18), and S. saprophyticus (n = 6) data are shown.

  • f Percentages given in parentheses show prevalences according to CLSI interpretative criteria.