TABLE 2

Clinical syndromes consistently (C) or hypothetically (H) associated with HHV-6 infections

Stage of HHV-6 infectionDisease or symptoma
Primary infection (congenital)Abnormalities at birth and during immediate postnatal period (H)
CNS developmental defects (H)
Primary infection (postnatal)Exanthema subitum (roseola infantum, sixth disease) (C)
Fever, seizures (C)
Mild gastrointestinal and respiratory tract symptoms (C)
Thrombocytopenia, infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome (C)
Hepatitis, gastroenteritis, colitis (C)
Meningoencephalitis and encephalitis (C)
Hemophagocytic syndrome (H)
Temporal lobe epilepsy (H)
Reactivation (and possible reinfection)Fever (C)
Rash (C)
Thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, anemia, bone marrow suppression (C)
Hepatitis (C)
Encephalitis, neurocognitive dysfunction (C)
Retinitis (C)
Pneumonitis (C)
Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (C)
Gastroenteritis, colitis (H)
Temporal lobe epilepsy (H)
Allograft rejection (H)
Graft-versus-host disease (H)
Thrombotic microangiopathy (H)
Higher incidence and severity of infections with HCMV, fungi, and other opportunistic pathogens (H)
    Chronic latent infection (with possible sporadic reactivations)Multiple sclerosis (H)
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (H)
Myocarditis, cardiomyopathy (H)
Chronic fatigue syndrome (H)
Acceleration of evolution to AIDS in HIV-positive individuals (H)
Hodgkin's disease (H)
  • a HCMV, human cytomegalovirus; C or H, consistent or hypothetical association with HHV-6 (keeping in mind that robust large-scale studies are lacking in most cases, which makes this classification prone to frequent changes and subject to personal interpretation).