TABLE 4

Characteristics of selected serologic tests used for the diagnosis of infection with Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A

TestTest methodologyReported characteristicsbReference(s)
Enterocheck-WBDipstick detecting anti-LPS IgM antibodiesSensitivity, 89%; specificity, 97% 268
LifeAssay Test-itDetects IgM antibodies against Salmonella Typhi LPS in an ICT LFA cassette formatSensitivity, 59%; specificity, 98% 265, 266
Mega Salmonella ELISA detecting IgG and IgM antibodies against an undefined Salmonella Typhi antigenSensitivity, 91%; specificity, 49% 257
Multi-Test-Dip-S-TicksDipstick detecting anti-LPS IgG and IgMSensitivity, 89%; specificity, 53% 259
PanBioELISA detecting anti-LPS IgG and IgMSensitivity, 78%; specificity, 80% 267
SD BiolineICT LFA cassette detecting IgG and IgM antibodies against an undefined Salmonella Typhi antigenSensitivity, 69%; specificity, 79% 257
Tubex TFDetects antibody against Salmonella Typhi LPS with an inhibition assay format and a visual result readoutSensitivity, 56–100%; specificity, 58–100% 249, 255 260, 263, 270
TyphidotMeasures IgM and IgG antibodies against a 50-kDa outer membrane protein of Salmonella Typhi in an immunodot test formatSensitivity, 67–98%; specificity, 58–100% 254, 255, 257, 259, 260, 269
Typhidot MMeasures IgM antibodies, after removal of IgG antibodies, against a 50-kDa outer membrane protein of Salmonella Typhi in a dot blot formatSensitivity, 47–98%; specificity, 65–93% 254, 255, 258
TyphiRapid IgM and IgG IgM (Combo)Measures IgM antibodies, after removal of IgG antibodies, against a 50-kDa outer membrane protein of Salmonella Typhi in an ICT LFAa cassette formatSensitivity, 89–100%; specificity, 85–89% 261, 262
Widal testMeasures agglutinating antibodies against O and H antigens of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A; uses a tube or slide formatVery variable sensitivity and specificity; lack of standardized reagents 237 240, 242, 243
  • a ICT, immunochromatographic test; LFA, lateral-flow assay.

  • b This column shows the range of sensitivity and specificity values from different studies with a range of sample sizes and methodologies. Where there is only one study, that value is given. For a systematic review of the studies examining Tubex TF and Typhidot, see reference 270.