TABLE 10.

Studies of MRSA carriage and infection in domesticated and wild animals and human contacts, 1993 to 2008a

AnimalsYr of studyLocation(s)Major finding(s)Isolate characteristic(s)bReference(s)
Birds2002-2003PennsylvaniaParrot with chronic MRSA sinusitisPVL+ 747
2003-2004Berlin, GermanyParrot with MRSA osteomyelitisST22-IV, PVL negative 969
Cats2003IrelandCat with MRSA UTINo information 689
2003-2004GermanyAt a school of veterinary medicine, 2 cats with UTIs and 1 cat with an ear swab that grew MRSAST22-IV/t032, PVL negative 869
2002-2003PennsylvaniaCat with an MRSA tooth abscessPVL+ isolate 747
2000-2004Washington State and Quebec, Canada2 kittens at a rescue center with rhinitis and an employee there had MRSA nasal colonization; a cat had MRSA UTI, and the genotypically same strain colonized the owner's noseCMRSA-2 by PFGE, SCCmec type II, PVL negative 989
2003-2004Berlin, Germany4 cats at a hospital, 1 with MRSA otitis and 3 with MRSA wound infectionsST22-IV, PVL negative (n = 3); Barnim strain by PFGE, SCCmec type IV, PVL negative (n = 1) 969
2002-2005PennsylvaniaClinical syndromes did not differ when 33 MSSA and 13 MRSA isolates from cats (among 11,149 cats treated) at a veterinary medical center were compared15 tested isolates had related PFGE types; all carried SCCmec type II 633
Not statedGermanyPet cat with pharyngeal MRSA colonization; genotypically identical strain caused recurrent SSTIs in its ownerST80-IV/spa t131 839
2003-2004Ireland and United Kingdom6 cats with MRSA infectionsEMRSA-15 strain by PFGE; spa types included t022, t032, t379, and t628 625
DogsNot statedUnited Kingdom, various locations210 dogs and cats with MRSA isolated from them29/31 isolates tested were EMRSA-15 (n = 25) or EMRSA-16 (n = 4), common pulsotypes in human infections 759
1998South KoreaMRSA isolates obtained from 12 dogs at a veterinary hospital, with 3 from catheters, 6 from nares, 1 from conjunctiva, 1 from recurrent pyoderma, and 1 from a surgical wound infectionAll isolates were MDR; none were susceptible to quinolones, gentamicin, or tobramycin 698
2003-2004PennsylvaniaAmong 20,366 dogs and 8,026 cats admitted to a university veterinary hospital, 137 animals had S. aureus isolated from them; 39/137 were MRSA isolates obtained from 28 dogs, 8 cats, and 3 unknown animals; isolates were from the skin (n = 11), ear canal (n = 2), genitourinary tract (n = 5), respiratory tract (n = 4), or another site (n = 17)Minority of isolates susceptible to clindamycin (28%), erythromycin (15%), or fluoroquinolones (10%) 634
2004Liverpool, United Kingdom3 dogs with MRSA infections, including joint infection, wound infection, and pleuropneumonia; 1 of the 3 had MRSA nasal and fecal carriage; a veterinary student who cared for 1 dog also carried MRSAAll isolates were EMRSA-15 by PFGE and PVL negative 41
2003-2004Ireland14 dogs at 25 veterinary clinics or a hospital with MRSA isolation, wound (n = 13) and nares (n = 1); veterinary personnel were also tested for nasal colonizationPFGE types of isolates from animals and personnel were common in an Irish reference collection of isolates from human infections 689
2004London, United Kingdom4/45 (9%) dogs at a veterinary hospital had nostril (n = 2) or buccal mucosa (n = 3) MRSA colonization; 13/78 personnel had MRSA colonization when tested at the same anatomical sites4 animal isolates and 7/18 human isolates were EMRSA-15 by PFGE 551; A. Loeffler, personal communication
2003-2004Germany13 dogs with MRSA isolated from them at a school of veterinary medicine; sources were fistula (n = 1), urine (n = 2), implant (n = 1), wound swab (n = 5), joint puncture (n = 2), and skin swab (n = 2)All isolates were ST22-IV/t032, PVL negative 869
2001MissouriA pet dog carried a strain identical by PFGE to that found in recurrent surgical wound infections of a man and cellulitis in a woman, his owners; the dog was likely a reservoir after colonization from his ownersNo further information 577
2003NetherlandsA dog and its owner, a health care worker, carried MRSA with a PFGE type identical to that of isolates from a nursing home MRSA outbreak and identified in a dogNo further information 939
1993-2002Utrecht, Netherlands2 dogs with MRSA infections, wound infection (n = 1) and flank fistula (n = 1)2 PFGE pulsotypes 936
2002-2003Pennsylvania8 dogs with MRSA infections5 different PFGE types, all PVL+ 869
Not statedUnited KingdomPet therapy dog with MRSA colonization in pooled culture of nose, scalp, and interdigital folds of paws; likely acquired colonization during visit to human health care facility; 2 other therapy dogs were not colonizedRelated to EMRSA-15, a common PFGE type among hospitalized patients in the United Kingdom 265
2000-2004Pennsylvania, New York State, and Ontario, CanadaReports of a dog with a postoperative MRSA SSTI, and 4/37 (11%) personnel were colonized with the same strain; a dog had an MRSA surgical wound infection, another dog was colonized in the same facility, and 2/22 (9%) clinic personnel carried the same strain; a dog had MRSA infection after ocular surgery and was colonized with the same strain as his owner; and a dog with an MRSA UTI had an owner who was colonized with same strainAll isolates were CMRSA-2, SCCmec type II, and PVL negative 989
Not statedGeesthacht, GermanyA dog with an MRSA SSTIST398-V/spa t034 1006
Not statedHong Kong, China0.72% (6/815) of dogs tested had MRSA nasal colonizationSCCmec type IV (n = 1), type IV new variant (n = 2), and type IIIB (n = 3), all PVL negative 81, 82
2003-2004Berlin, Germany18 dogs at a hospital with MRSA isolated from them; anatomical sites were wounds (n = 15), dermatitis (n = 1), otitis (n = 1), and cystitis (n = 1)ST22-IV (n = 15), ST239 (n = 2) with “untypeable” SCCmec and “related to the Barnim clone” with SCCmec type IV (n = 1); all 18 isolates were PVL negative 969
2003-2004Adelaide, South AustraliaMRSA was obtained from cultures of 2/141 skin lesions in dogs at a 2 veterinary clinics; 0/51 healthy dogs had skin colonization with MRSANo information 576; M. Barton, personal communication
2003-2004Ireland and United Kingdom27 MRSA isolates from clinical cultures taken from dogs96% identical or closely related to EMRSA-15 by PFGE; spa types included t020, t022, t025, t032, t749, t883, t1021, t1041, and t1042 (the t1042 isolates were ST72 by MLST) 625, 689
Other2003IrelandA seal with an MRSA culture from a lymph nodeNo information 689
2008United StatesA premature elephant calf with MRSA SSTI; 20/55 previously healthy caretakers in contact with the calf had probable or confirmed MRSA SSTIsIsolates from the calf (n = 3) and from caretakers (n = 5) were USA300 137
2003-2004Berlin, GermanyA turtle and a guinea pig with MRSA dermatitis at a hospitalBoth isolates were ST22-IV, PVL negative 969
  • a UTI, urinary tract infection.

  • b MRSA composite strain genotypes are presented in the following format: MLST type-SCCmec type/spa type. For example, ST398-IVa/t011 indicates a MRSA strain that was ST398 by MLST, carried the SCCmec type IVa element, and was type t011 by spa typing.