TABLE 10.

Studies of MRSA carriage and infection in domesticated and wild animals and human contacts, 1993 to 2008a

AnimalsYr of studyLocation(s)Major finding(s)Isolate characteristic(s)bReference(s)
Birds2002-2003PennsylvaniaParrot with chronic MRSA sinusitisPVL+747
2003-2004Berlin, GermanyParrot with MRSA osteomyelitisST22-IV, PVL negative969
Cats2003IrelandCat with MRSA UTINo information689
2003-2004GermanyAt a school of veterinary medicine, 2 cats with UTIs and 1 cat with an ear swab that grew MRSAST22-IV/t032, PVL negative869
2002-2003PennsylvaniaCat with an MRSA tooth abscessPVL+ isolate747
2000-2004Washington State and Quebec, Canada2 kittens at a rescue center with rhinitis and an employee there had MRSA nasal colonization; a cat had MRSA UTI, and the genotypically same strain colonized the owner's noseCMRSA-2 by PFGE, SCCmec type II, PVL negative989
2003-2004Berlin, Germany4 cats at a hospital, 1 with MRSA otitis and 3 with MRSA wound infectionsST22-IV, PVL negative (n = 3); Barnim strain by PFGE, SCCmec type IV, PVL negative (n = 1)969
2002-2005PennsylvaniaClinical syndromes did not differ when 33 MSSA and 13 MRSA isolates from cats (among 11,149 cats treated) at a veterinary medical center were compared15 tested isolates had related PFGE types; all carried SCCmec type II633
Not statedGermanyPet cat with pharyngeal MRSA colonization; genotypically identical strain caused recurrent SSTIs in its ownerST80-IV/spa t131839
2003-2004Ireland and United Kingdom6 cats with MRSA infectionsEMRSA-15 strain by PFGE; spa types included t022, t032, t379, and t628625
DogsNot statedUnited Kingdom, various locations210 dogs and cats with MRSA isolated from them29/31 isolates tested were EMRSA-15 (n = 25) or EMRSA-16 (n = 4), common pulsotypes in human infections759
1998South KoreaMRSA isolates obtained from 12 dogs at a veterinary hospital, with 3 from catheters, 6 from nares, 1 from conjunctiva, 1 from recurrent pyoderma, and 1 from a surgical wound infectionAll isolates were MDR; none were susceptible to quinolones, gentamicin, or tobramycin698
2003-2004PennsylvaniaAmong 20,366 dogs and 8,026 cats admitted to a university veterinary hospital, 137 animals had S. aureus isolated from them; 39/137 were MRSA isolates obtained from 28 dogs, 8 cats, and 3 unknown animals; isolates were from the skin (n = 11), ear canal (n = 2), genitourinary tract (n = 5), respiratory tract (n = 4), or another site (n = 17)Minority of isolates susceptible to clindamycin (28%), erythromycin (15%), or fluoroquinolones (10%)634
2004Liverpool, United Kingdom3 dogs with MRSA infections, including joint infection, wound infection, and pleuropneumonia; 1 of the 3 had MRSA nasal and fecal carriage; a veterinary student who cared for 1 dog also carried MRSAAll isolates were EMRSA-15 by PFGE and PVL negative41
2003-2004Ireland14 dogs at 25 veterinary clinics or a hospital with MRSA isolation, wound (n = 13) and nares (n = 1); veterinary personnel were also tested for nasal colonizationPFGE types of isolates from animals and personnel were common in an Irish reference collection of isolates from human infections689
2004London, United Kingdom4/45 (9%) dogs at a veterinary hospital had nostril (n = 2) or buccal mucosa (n = 3) MRSA colonization; 13/78 personnel had MRSA colonization when tested at the same anatomical sites4 animal isolates and 7/18 human isolates were EMRSA-15 by PFGE551; A. Loeffler, personal communication
2003-2004Germany13 dogs with MRSA isolated from them at a school of veterinary medicine; sources were fistula (n = 1), urine (n = 2), implant (n = 1), wound swab (n = 5), joint puncture (n = 2), and skin swab (n = 2)All isolates were ST22-IV/t032, PVL negative869
2001MissouriA pet dog carried a strain identical by PFGE to that found in recurrent surgical wound infections of a man and cellulitis in a woman, his owners; the dog was likely a reservoir after colonization from his ownersNo further information577
2003NetherlandsA dog and its owner, a health care worker, carried MRSA with a PFGE type identical to that of isolates from a nursing home MRSA outbreak and identified in a dogNo further information939
1993-2002Utrecht, Netherlands2 dogs with MRSA infections, wound infection (n = 1) and flank fistula (n = 1)2 PFGE pulsotypes936
2002-2003Pennsylvania8 dogs with MRSA infections5 different PFGE types, all PVL+869
Not statedUnited KingdomPet therapy dog with MRSA colonization in pooled culture of nose, scalp, and interdigital folds of paws; likely acquired colonization during visit to human health care facility; 2 other therapy dogs were not colonizedRelated to EMRSA-15, a common PFGE type among hospitalized patients in the United Kingdom265
2000-2004Pennsylvania, New York State, and Ontario, CanadaReports of a dog with a postoperative MRSA SSTI, and 4/37 (11%) personnel were colonized with the same strain; a dog had an MRSA surgical wound infection, another dog was colonized in the same facility, and 2/22 (9%) clinic personnel carried the same strain; a dog had MRSA infection after ocular surgery and was colonized with the same strain as his owner; and a dog with an MRSA UTI had an owner who was colonized with same strainAll isolates were CMRSA-2, SCCmec type II, and PVL negative989
Not statedGeesthacht, GermanyA dog with an MRSA SSTIST398-V/spa t0341006
Not statedHong Kong, China0.72% (6/815) of dogs tested had MRSA nasal colonizationSCCmec type IV (n = 1), type IV new variant (n = 2), and type IIIB (n = 3), all PVL negative81, 82
2003-2004Berlin, Germany18 dogs at a hospital with MRSA isolated from them; anatomical sites were wounds (n = 15), dermatitis (n = 1), otitis (n = 1), and cystitis (n = 1)ST22-IV (n = 15), ST239 (n = 2) with “untypeable” SCCmec and “related to the Barnim clone” with SCCmec type IV (n = 1); all 18 isolates were PVL negative969
2003-2004Adelaide, South AustraliaMRSA was obtained from cultures of 2/141 skin lesions in dogs at a 2 veterinary clinics; 0/51 healthy dogs had skin colonization with MRSANo information576; M. Barton, personal communication
2003-2004Ireland and United Kingdom27 MRSA isolates from clinical cultures taken from dogs96% identical or closely related to EMRSA-15 by PFGE; spa types included t020, t022, t025, t032, t749, t883, t1021, t1041, and t1042 (the t1042 isolates were ST72 by MLST)625, 689
Other2003IrelandA seal with an MRSA culture from a lymph nodeNo information689
2008United StatesA premature elephant calf with MRSA SSTI; 20/55 previously healthy caretakers in contact with the calf had probable or confirmed MRSA SSTIsIsolates from the calf (n = 3) and from caretakers (n = 5) were USA300137
2003-2004Berlin, GermanyA turtle and a guinea pig with MRSA dermatitis at a hospitalBoth isolates were ST22-IV, PVL negative969
  • a UTI, urinary tract infection.

  • b MRSA composite strain genotypes are presented in the following format: MLST type-SCCmec type/spa type. For example, ST398-IVa/t011 indicates a MRSA strain that was ST398 by MLST, carried the SCCmec type IVa element, and was type t011 by spa typing.