Studies of MRSA carriage and infection in livestock animals and human contacts, 1993 to 2008

AnimalsYr of studyLocation(s)Major finding(s)Genotype(s) identifiedaReference(s)
Chickens2006BelgiumChickens on farms with cloacal or nasal MRSA colonizationST398-IVa or -V or nontypeable SCCmec/t011, ST398-III/t567 663
2007BelgiumMRSA isolated from cloaca or nasal cavity of broiler chicken spa type t1456, ST398 722
Cows2002-2004HungaryMilk samples from cows with subclinical mastitis and tonsillar swab culture of milk industry worker grew MRSA identical by PFGEST1-IVa/t127, PVL negative 451
Horses1993-1994MichiganHorses with MRSA wound infections after procedures; 3 health care workers had nasal colonization with MRSA strains related by PFGENot stated 817
2000-2002Ontario, CanadaAt a veterinary college and on 10 horse farms, MRSA isolates were obtained from screening cultures of the nares of horses and personnel as well as from sites of clinical infection; this yielded MRSA isolates from 79 horses and 27 personnel; a horse farm worker had the sole human infection; he had an MRSA SSTI complicating a tattoo wound; CMRSA-5 was isolated from him, and MRSA isolates identical by PFGE were recovered from 2 horses under his careCMRSA-5 by PFGE (related to USA500, carrying SCCmec type IV, spa type t007, PVL negative) accounted for 26/27 (93%) isolates from people and 76/79 (96%) of isolates from horses 991
2004Ontario, CanadaA foal with MRSA arthritis and omphalophlebitis and its dam with MRSA nasal colonization were admitted to a veterinary hospital; health care workers who cared for the foal developed MRSA SSTIs, and 10/103 (9.7%) personnel had either nasal or groin colonization with MRSAPVL negative and identical by PFGE, CMRSA-5 (related to USA500) 988
2004Liverpool, United Kingdom11/67 (16%) horses at a hospital had MRSA nasal or skin carriage; 3 others had clinical MRSA infections12 isolates from 7 horses had 5 PFGE types, all were PVL negative 41
2008Hertfordshire, United Kingdom2 MRSA infections in horses at a veterinary college hospitalST398-IVa/t011, PVL negative 552; A. Loeffler, personal communication
2003-2004IrelandHorses at 7 veterinary clinics and a hospital with MRSA wound infections or “abdominal granuloma”; horse strains related to those recovered from the nares of attendant veterinary personnelUnrelated to known clinical isolates held by a large Irish reference laboratory, all with identical or closely related PFGE types 689
2002-2003Ontario, Canada, and New YorkFarm in Ontario with MRSA colonization in 9/53 (17%) horses and 1/10 (10%) personnel; farm in New York with MRSA colonization of 29/67 (43%) horses and 3/18 (17%) personnelNo information 986
Not statedVienna, Austria2 horses with MRSA wound infectionsST398-IVa/t011 1006
Not statedLower Saxony, GermanyFoal with MRSA sinusitisST398-V/t1197 1006
2002-2005Ontario, Canada69/3,372 (2.0%) horses upon admission to a teaching hospital had nasal MRSA colonizationNo information 987
2007Belgium12/110 (10.9%) horses from Belgium, the Netherlands, France, and Luxemburg seen at a clinic had MRSA nasal colonizationST398-IVa/t011 (n = 10), ST398-V/t011 (n = 2), and ST398-IVa/t1451 (n = 1) 932
2006-2007Vienna, AustriaMRSA infections among 25 horses at a university veterinary hospital; 18/131 (13.7%) personnel had MRSA colonizationHorse strains were ST1-IVa/t127 (n = 3), ST254-IVd/t036 (n = 15), and ST398-IVa/t011 (n = 7), and all were PVL negative; personnel strains were ST1-IVa/t127 (n = 2), ST254-IVd/t036 (n = 13), ST398-IVa/t011 (n = 2), and ST8-IVh/t008, and all were PVL negative 198
2003-2004United Kingdom9 MRSA isolates from clinical infections of horses spa-CC8 (n = 8) or related to EMRSA-15 (n = 1); spa types included t020, t036, t064, and t451 625
PigsNot statedFrance5/112 (4.5%) pig farmers carried MRSA in the nasopharynx; none of 27 nonfarmer controls matched by age, sex, and county of residence carried MRSAST8 (n = 2), ST5 (n = 1), ST438 (n = 1), and ST398 (n = 1) 27, 31
2008ChinaMRSA isolated from dust samples on 5/9 (56%) pig farms in Sichuan ProvinceST9/t899 or ST1376/t899, all PVL negative 965
2008ChinaMRSA isolated from nares of 58/509 (11.4%) pigs and 2/13 (15%) pig farm workers in 4 Chinese provinces; none of 276 cattle, 47 cattle workers, or 107 slaughterhouse workers had nasal MRSA carriageST9/t899 (n = 46), ST912/t899 (n = 13), and ST1297/t899 (n = 1), all PVL negative 197
2004-2005Netherlands3 family members on a pig farm (farm A) colonized with identical MRSA strains; at a university medical center, another farmer, a veterinarian, his son, and his son's nurse carried the same strain as above-described family; 1/30 (3.3%) pigs on farm A had perineal carriage of the same MRSA strain; at a meeting of regional pig farmers, 6/26 (23%) were colonized with MRSA in the throat and/or noseNone typeable by PFGE; spa type t108, t567, or t943 961
2005NetherlandsA woman with MRSA mastitis and her daughter had MRSA nasal colonization; 3 family members and 3 coworkers on her pig farm had MRSA throat or nasal colonization, and 8/10 (80%) pigs on the farm had throat, nasal, or perineal colonizationAll isolates were ST398-V/spa t108, agr type 1, and PVL and TSST negative 417
Not statedLower Saxony, GermanyMRSA colonization in 1 pig from a veterinary medical schoolST398-V/t034 1006
2005-2006Netherlands209/540 (39%) pigs in 9 slaughterhouses had MRSA nasal colonization; transmission of MRSA both prior to arrival and at slaughterhouses was likelyST398 with SCCmec type III (n = 4), IVa (n = 41), or V (n = 59); spa types included t011, t108, t1254, t1255, t567, t034, and t943 226
2005Singapore1/64 (1.5%) pigs used in exptl research, 1/50 (2%) pigs in a slaughterhouse, and 1/32 (3%) staff workers at an academic hospital's research facilities had MRSA nasal colonization2 isolates from pigs were ST398-V; 1 from a pig and 1 from a scientist were ST22-IV 819
2006Netherlands35/310 (11%) pigs on 7/31 (23%) farms had MRSA nasal colonization; 11 MRSA-colonized personnel had strains with the same genotype as those of pigs on their respective farmsST398-IV or -V/t011, t108, t567, t899, and t1939, all PVL negative 940
2005Denmark S. aureus nasal carriage in 10/100 (10%) pigs; 1/10 (10%) were MRSA, and 9/10 (90%) were MSSAAll nontypeable by PFGE; spa type t034 (n = 9) or related t1793 (n = 1) 35, 351
2004-2007DenmarkPigs tested after a person working or living on the farm presented with CC398 MRSA (i.e., spa type t034, t108, or t1793) infection or carriage; 23/50 (46%) pigs had nasal carriage of CC398 MRSAPigs carried CC398, spa type t034 532
2007NetherlandsOn 50 farms, 33/232 (14%) pig farmers and their families had nasal colonization with MRSA, and either pigs had nasal carriage or fomites near pigs were contaminated with MRSA on 28/50 (56%) farms; on 15 farms with nasal colonization in people, animals and people had the same spa typeNo information 931
2007-2008Iowa and IllinoisIn 2 farm systems, 49% (147/299) of swine and 45% (9/20) of farm workers had MRSA nasal carriage15 MRSA isolates from animals and workers were all ST398-V, PVL negative 846; T. Smith, personal communication
Not statedOntario, Canada71/285 (24.9%) pigs on 20 farms had MRSA nasal or rectal colonization; 5/25 (20%) pig farmers had MRSA nasal carriage; on 5 farms with human colonization, concordant strain types were found in farmers and pigs59.2% of pig and human isolates had spa type t034 and could not be typed by PFGE; 10% of pig and 20% of human isolates were USA100 471
2006NetherlandsMRSA SSTIs in 4 piglets on a breeding farm and 20 pigs on a supplier farm; MRSA nasal colonization in 2 farm workersST398-IV/t011 937
2008Portugal4 pigs and 1 veterinarian from a pig farm had MRSA nasal carriage, and at a second farm, 3 pigs had MRSA nasal carriageFirst farm had ST398-V/t011, PVL negative; second farm had ST30-V/t021, PVL negative 730
Rabbits2002-2003Pennsylvania1 rabbit with an ear infectionPVL+ 747
2003IrelandAt a clinic, MRSA wound culture from rabbit and MRSA nasal carriage in veterinary workerBoth isolates had the same PFGE type 689
2003-2004Berlin, GermanyWound infection in a rabbit at a hospitalST22-IV, PVL negative 969
Rats2008Belgium and Netherlands5/40 (12.5%) black rats (Rattus rattus) trapped at pig farms had MRSA throat colonizationST398/t011 (n = 4) and ST97/t1236 (n = 1), all PVL negative 930
  • a MRSA composite strain genotypes are presented in the following format: MLST type-SCCmec type/spa type. For example, ST398-IVa/t011 indicates a MRSA strain that was ST398 by MLST, carried the SCCmec type IVa element, and was type t011 by spa typing.