TABLE 3.

Summary of classification schemes/staging systems for heart involvement in chronic Chagas' diseasea

Classification scheme or staging system (reference)
First stage, indeterminate form
    No evidence of heart involvement by:
    ECG and CXR (stage 0 KC) (177)
    ECG, echocardiogram, and signs of CHF (stage IA MLAC) (69)
    ECG, echocardiogram, CXR, and NYHA functional class (stage A-ACC/AHA) (15, 151)
Second stage: CCC without signs or symptoms of heart failure
    Evidence of structural heart disease by:
        ECG +/− CXR (stage I-II KC) (177)
        ECG +/− echocardiogram (stage A-B2 BCC) (3)
        Echocardiogram +/− ECG (stage IB-II MLAC) (69)
        ECG (stage B A-ACC/AHA) (15, 151)
Third stage: compensated CCC
    Takes into account symptoms
        Compensated CHF (stage C BCC) (3)
        NYHA II-III (stage C A-ACC/AHA) (15, 151)
Fourth stage: overt, refractory, or advanced CCC
    Includes:
        Stage III from the KC and the MLAC (69, 177)
        Stage D from the BCC and the A-ACC/AHA classification (3, 15, 151)
  • a According to the modified Kuschnir classification (KC), the Brazilian Consensus classification (BCC), the modified Los Andes classification (MLAC), and the classification incorporating American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) staging (A-AAA/AHA) (3, 15, 69, 151, 177). CXR, chest radiograph; CHF, congestive heart failure; NYHA, New York Heart Association.