TABLE 2.

Hallmarks of chronic Chagas' cardiomyopathya

Hallmark of CCC
Arrhythmias
    Ventricular extrasystoles
    Nonsustained and sustained ventricular tachycardia
    Bradyarrhythmias
    Ventricular fibrillation
    Atrial fibrillation/flutter
Conduction abnormalities
    Sick sinus syndrome
    Complete and incomplete right bundle branch block
    Left anterior fascicle block
    Bifascicular and trifascicular blocks
    1st-, 2nd-, and 3rd-degree AV blocks
Thromboembolic phenomena
    Brain (most frequent)
    Lungs, kidneys, spleen
Cardiac failure
    Diastolic dysfunction initially
    Isolated left heart failure in the early stages of cardiac
        decompensation
    Biventricular with a predominance of right-sided failure in
        advanced stages
Apical aneurysm
    Found in 52% of autopsy series
    More frequent in men
    80% in the LV apex
Sudden death secondary to:
    Ventricular fibrillation (most frequent)
    Bradyarrhythmias
    Rupture of apical aneurysm (exceptional)
  • a See references 15, 179, 244, and 274.