TABLE 1.

Comparative studies of the relative prevalence of respiratory viral infection in children a

Study authors (reference)Recruitment criterionDetection method(s)Most prevalent virus(es)Other viruses detectedDescription
Bonzel et al. (31)Children with acute ARIPCRRSVBoV, RV∼20% viral coinfection; no conclusive effect on severity
Bosis et al. (34)Children aged <1 yr hospitalized with wheezePCRRSVIV, CoV, hMPV, BoVAssociation between RSV and wheezing
Bulut et al. (42)Children aged <12 yr with AOMPCRRSVRV, CoV, IV, PIV, AVAlso have data about bacterial infection, a more common cause of AOM
Cabello et al. (43)Children aged <5 yr with ARIImmunofluorescenceRSV/IVPIV, AV65% viral, 13% bacterial, 22% coinfection
Calvo et al. (44)Children aged <2 yr hospitalized with bronchiolitisImmunofluorescence, viral culture, PCRRSVAV, RV, hMPV, IV, PIV, EV, CoV, CMV
Calvo et al. (45)Children aged <2 yr hospitalized with ARIPCRRSVAV, RV, hMPV, IV, PIV, EV, CoV, CMV17.4% viral coinfection; coinfection associated with increased severity
Camps et al. (47)Children aged <1 yr hospitalized with bronchiolitis or bronchopneumoniaImmunofluorescence, viral culture, PCRRSVhMPV, RV, AV, IV, PIV, CoV
Canducci et al. (48)Children aged <2 yr hospitalized with ARIPCRRSVhMPV, CoV, BoV23% viral coinfection; single infection associated with increased severity
Chonmaitree et al. (58)Children aged <3 yr with URTI or AOMViral culture, antigen detection, PCRAV, RV (URTI); CoV, RSV, AV (AOM)EV, CoV, PIV, RSV, IVAge a critical factor in AOM
Chung et al. (59)Children aged <6 yr with acute wheezingAntigen detection, RT-PCRRVRSV, BoV, hMPV16% viral coinfection; no conclusive effect on severity
Cilla et al. (60)Children aged <3 yr with community-acquired pneumoniaImmunofluorescence, viral culture, PCRRSVBoV, RV, hMPV, PIV, IV, CoV, AV27% viral coinfection; coinfection associated with increased severity
Cooper et al. (67)Calls about fever, cough, difficulty breathing, and cold/fluDatabase dataIVRSV, RV, PIVModeled data from “NHS direct” calls; bacteria (especially S. pneumoniae) common
Costa et al. (69)Children aged <5 yr with ARIImmunofluorescence, PCRRVIV, PIV, AV, RSV
Esposito et al. (94)Children aged <15 yr in emergency room for any causePCRIVBoV, IV, RSV, hMPV, PIV, RV, AV, CoVBoV not important cause of hospitalization on its own
Fabbiani et al. (95)Children aged <15 yr with ARIPCRRVRSV, AV, hMPV, BoV, CoV
Forster et al. (101)Children aged <3 yr with LRTIPCRRSVPIV, IVOffice visit rate of ∼28.7%, hospitalization rate of ∼3% for all cases of LRTI
Hall et al. (120)Children aged <5 yr with ARIViral culture, PCRRSVPIV, IVRSV accounted for 15% of office visits and 20% of hospitalizations as a proportion of ARI
Heymann et al. (127)Children aged <3 yr hospitalized with wheezingViral culture, antigen detection, PCRRSVAV, PIV, IV, RV, EV, CoVIn children aged <3 yr, viral infection was the main risk factor for wheeze (84%); incidence of RSV is greater in winter, and incidence of RV is greater in other months
Hon et al. (133)Children admitted to PICUImmunofluorescenceRSVIV, PIV, AVAge of RSV infection is lower
Jackson et al. (147)Children aged <6 for prospective study for wheezing ARIViral culture, antigen detection, PCRRVRSV, hMPV, AV, IV, PIV, CoVLink with RSV and RV wheeze and asthma
Jacques et al. (149)Children aged <3 yr hospitalized with bronchiolitisImmunofluorescence, viral culture, PCRRSVRV, EV, hMPV, PIV, IV, AV∼20 % viral coinfection; seasonality of viruses seen
Jartti et al. (151)Children aged <1 yr with moderate-to-severe respiratory illnessesViral culture, antigen detection, PCRRVRSV, PIV, Echo, CoV, AVStudy investigated sequential, multiple infections throughout the yr
Jartti et al. (154)Children aged <1 yr hospitalized with acute wheezingViral culture, antigen detection, PCRRSVhMPV, PIV, IV, AV, CoV
Children aged <3 yr hospitalized with acute wheezingEV/RV
Klein et al. (165)Children aged <2 yr born either premature or with congenital heart diseasePCRRSVhMPV, PIV, IV
Konïg et al. (169)Children aged <3 yr for prospective studyPCR, viral cultureRSVhMPV, IV, PIVhMPV and RSV coinfection associated with increased severity
Kusel et al. (180)Children aged <1 yr with ARIPCRRVRSV, CoV, PIV, IV, hMPV, AVExtended findings reported (181)
Legg et al. (186)Children aged <1 yr with ARIPCRPicornavirusRSV, COV, PIV∼20% viral coinfection; no effect on severity
Lehtinen et al. (190)Children aged <16 yr with acute wheezingViral culture, antigen detection, PCRRVRSV, EV18% of children had bacterial coinfection
Lemanske et al. (192)Children aged <3 yr with ARIViral culture, antigen detection, PCRRVRSV, PIV, IV, AVLink with RSV and RV wheeze and asthma
Louie et al. (208)Children aged <18 yr hospitalized in PICU with LRTIPCRRVhMPV, RSV, PIV47% viral or bacterial coinfection
Manning et al. (215)Archived respiratory samples (67% from children aged <5 yr)PCRRSVIV, BoV, PIV, AVBoV common as a coinfection agent
Manoha et al. (216)Children aged <3 yr with ARIImmunofluorescence, PCRRSVhMPV, RV
Mansbach et al. (217)Children aged <2 yr with bronchiolitisPCRRSVRV, hMPV, IV
Marguet et al. (218)Children aged <1 yr with bronchiolitisPCRRSVRV, hMPV, CoVRSV was associated with more severe disease
Mullins et al. (235)Children aged <5 yr with ARIViral culture, PCRRSVRSV, hMPV
Nicholson et al. (242)Children aged <6 yr with ARIPCRRSVhMPV, IVObservation that IV is underreported
Papadopoulos et al. (251)Children aged <18 mo with bronchiolitisPCRRSVRV, AV, IV, PIV, CoV19.5% viral coinfection; RV is associated with increased disease severity
Pierangeli et al. (258)Children aged <12 yr hospitalized with ARIPCRRSVRSV, RV, IV, PIV, hMPV, AV4.8% viral coinfection
Regamey et al. (277)Children aged <1 yr with ARIPCRRV, CoVPIV, RSV, hMPV, BoV, IV, AV, EVRSV infection led to more severe symptoms
Rihkanen et al. (279)Children admitted to hospital with croup with median age of 1.9 yrPCRPIVRSV, BoV, EV, IV, CoV, AVCompared croup and wheeze; PIV was main agent in croup, and RSV was main agent in wheeze
Schanzer et al. (289)Patients <19 yr old, based on hospital coding dataVariousPIVRSV, IVIV accounts for 1.5% of hospitalizations, rising to 7% in season
Stempel et al. (314)Children aged <2 yr hospitalized with bronchiolitisPCR, immunofluorescenceRSVAV, hMPV, CoV, PIV, IV24% viral coinfection
Talbot et al. (323)Children aged <5 yr hospitalized with LRTIPCRRVRSV, IV, hMPV, CoVFocus on CoV; CoV accounted for 1.8% of hospitalizations
Weigl et al. (348)Children aged <16 yr with ARIPCRRVRSV, hMPV, PIV, IV, EV, CoV
Weinberg et al. (349)Children aged <5 yr with ARIViral culture, PCRRSVIV, PIVFocus on PIV; PIV accounted for 6.8% of hospitalizations
Wolf et al. (351)Children aged < 5 yr with LRTIImmunofluorescence, PCRRSVhMPV, IV, PIV, AVhMPV coinfection did not increase severity
  • a The table shows a sample of the studies published comparing causes of infection. Studies were selected if they were recent (in the last 5 years), compared more than one virus, recruited children only (<18 years old), and were in readily available journals. Abbreviations: AV, adenovirus; BoV, bocavirus; CoV, coronavirus; EV, enterovirus; Echo, echovirus; hMPV, human metapneumovirus; IV, influenza virus; PIV, parainfluenza virus; RV, rhinovirus; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; CMV, cytomegalovirus; ARI, acute respiratory illness; AOM, acute otitis media; URTI, upper respiratory tract infection; LRTI, lower respiratory tract infection; PICU, pediatric intensive care unit.