TABLE 4.

Marine species of Diphyllobothrium and Diplogonoporusa

SpeciesDefinitive hostSecond hostSite of infectionDistributionDescriptionReference(s)
D. cameroni Rausch, 1969Hawaiian monk seal, occasionally humansUnknownUnknownPacific OceanHuman cases in Japan74, 129
D. cordatum (Leuckart, 1863)Arctic seals, walruses, occasionally dogs and humansUnknownUnknownCircumpolarOne human case in Greenland100
D. hians (Diesing, 1850)Arctic seals, occasionally humansUnknownUnknownCircumpolarTwo human cases in Japan75
D. lanceolatum (Krabbe, 1865)Hair seals, occasionally dogs and humansSardine ciscoBody cavity (free)CircumpolarOne human case in Alaska134
D. orcini Hatsushika et Shirouzu, 1990Killer whale, occasionally humansUnknownUnknownPacific OceanTwo human cases in Japan64, 77
D. pacificum (Nybelin, 1931)bSea lions, eared seals; occasionally humansMarine fishMusculaturePacific coast of South America, Japanc15, 17, 18, 94, 144, 147, 148, 152, 155
D. scoticum (Rennie et Reid, 1912)Leopard seal, southern sea lion, occasionally humansUnknownUnknownCircumpolarOne human case in Japan but no scolex58
D. stemmacephalum Cobbold, 1858dHarbor porpoise, bottle-nosed dolphin; occasionally humansUnknownUnknownCircumpolar6, 72, 84, 88, 173
Diplogonoporus balaenopterae (Lönnberg, 1891)eWhales, occasionally humansProbably Japanese anchovy and sardineUnknownCircumpolar11, 32, 49, 71, 72, 80, 130, 177
  • a Fish names are as follows: Japanese anchovy or “shirasu,” Engraulis japonica; Japanese sardine, Sardinops melanostictus; sardine cisco, Coregonus sardinella. Marine fish include species of Ariidae, Carangidae, Coryphaenidae, Haemulidae, Merlucciidae, Ophidiidae, Sciaenidae, and Scombridae (152). Mammal names are as follows: bottle-nosed dolphin, Tursiops truncatus; dog, Canis familiaris; harbor porpoise dolphin, Phocoena phocoena; leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx; southern sea lion, Otaria byronia; whales, Balaenoptera and Megaptera.

  • b Synonyms are Adenocephalus pacificus Nybelin, 1931; A. septentrionalis Nybelin, 1931; Diphyllobothrium arctocephali Drummond, 1937; D. arctocephalinum Johnston, 1937; D. krotovi Delyamure, 1955; and D. atlanticum Delyamure et Parukhin, 1968.

  • c Most human cases are reported from Peru (but also from Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, and Japan), where humans become infected by eating a local dish called ceviche. The dish is made mainly from “suco” (Paralonchurus peruanus), “lorna” or “cachema” (Sciaena deliciosa), and “corvina” (Cilus gilberti). One patient in Chile was most probably infected after eating smoked “jurel” (Trachurus murphyi).

  • d Type species of the genus. Yamane et al. (173) proposed a new species, D. yonagoense, based on a single specimen found in humans. So far, 20 human cases from Japan and a single case from South Korea have been recognized as being caused by D. yonagoense infection, according to data described previously (72). Synonyms are Diphyllobothrium ponticum Delyamure, 1971, and D. yonagoense Yamane, Kamo, Yazaki, Fukumoto, et Maejima, 1981.

  • e More than 200 cases of human diplogonoporosis are known from Japan, whereas only two human cases have been reported outside Japan (South Korea and Spain). In addition, two other species of Diplogonoporus, namely, D. brauni Leon, 1907, and D. fukuokaensis Kamo et Miyazaki, 1970, have been reported from humans, but they may represent synonyms of D. balaenopterae.