TABLE 2.

Representative PMQR plasmids

PlasmidPMQR geneHostYr of isolationSize (kb)Inc groupCountryLinked bla geneaReference(s) or source
pMG252qnrA1K. pneumoniae1994∼180United StatesFOX-5123
pHSH2qnrA1E. coli2000-200185China212
pQR1qnrA1E. coli2003180A/C2FranceVEB-1120, 157
qnrA1E. cloacae2002-200575H12FranceSHV-12152, 157
qnrA1E. aerogenes2002-2005150FIIFranceSHV-12152, 157
pQCqnrA1E. cloacae2002180The NetherlandsCTX-M-9136, 137
pKO97qnrA1E. coli2001-2003South Korea93
qnrA3S. enterica serovar Enteritidis2003Hong KongCTX-M-1438, 42
qnrA6P. mirabilis2002-2005FrancePER-117
pMG298qnrB1K. pneumoniae2002-2003340IndiaCTX-M-1591
qnrB2E. coli200455Brazil126
pJIBE401qnrB2K. pneumoniae2003>150L/MAustraliaIMP-459, 60
qnrB2S. enterica serovar Keurmasser2000SenegalSHV-1268
pMG317qnrB3E. coli1999-200475United States166
pMG319qnrB4E. cloacae1999-2004200United StatesDHA-1166
pPMDHAqnrB4K. oxytoca2002(Tra)FranceDHA-1202
qnrB4E. cloacaeb119ChinaDHA-1223
pMG305qnrB5S. enterica serovar Berta199780United States70
pHND2qnrB6K. pneumoniae2006ChinaCTX-M-9Gc116
qnrB7E. cloacae2002-2004KuwaitSHV-1229
qnrB8C. freundii2002-2004KuwaitVEB-1b29
pCF41qnrB9C. freundiibChinaGenBank accession no. EF526508
pARCF702qnrB10C. freundii2005Argentina161
pR4525qnrB19E. coli200240ColumbiaSHV-12 CTX-M-1223
pLRM24qnrB19K. pneumoniae200780United StatesKPC-358, 162
qnrB19S. enterica1999-2006NThe Netherlands67
pAH0376qnrS1S. flexneri2003∼50Japan75
pINF5qnrS1S. enterica200458Europe103
TPqnrS-2aqnrS1S. enterica200444NUnited Kingdom83
pK245qnrS1K. pneumoniae200298TaiwanSHV-237
qnrS1K. pneumoniae2004-2006L/MSouth Korea190
qnrS1S. enterica1999-2006>250HI2The NetherlandsLAP-267
qnrS1S. enterica1999-2006RThe Netherlands67
pGNB2qnrS2d20048.5QGermany14
p37qnrS2A. punctata200655 (Tra)UFrance24
pGD007qnrS3E. coli226
qnrS4S. enterica2007Denmark195
pHS10qnrC1P. mirabilis2006∼120China208
p2007057qnrD1S. enterica2006-20074.3China32
pHSH10-2aac(6′)-Ib-crE. coli2000-2001China165
aac(6′)-Ib-crE. coli2003-2006150FIIUnited KingdomCTX-M-15102
pC15-1aaac(6′)-Ib-crE. coli2000-200292FIICanadaCTX-M-1515
p34aac(6′)-Ib-crA. allosaccharophila200580Switzerland149
pHPAqepA1E. coli2002FIIJapanCTX-M-12222
pIP1206qepA1E. coli2000-2005168FIBelgium148
pQepqepA2E. coli200790 (Tra)FIFrance28
pOLA52oqxABE. colib52X1Denmark134, 186
  • a Only unusual bla genes are shown.

  • b Not specified.

  • c CTX-M-9 group. See reference 116 for details.

  • d Unidentified bacteria in activated sludge.