TABLE 4.

Acute treatment for DIa

StudyNo. of primary DI cases/total no. of casesDesignTreatmentOutcome (%)
+++0Other
Wilson and Miller (1946)4/51RetrospectiveNo antipsychotics10882
Frithz (1979)15/15OpenFluphenazine dec. i.m. (n = 10) or cisflupenthixol dec. i.m. (n = 5)73b20b7b
Hamann and Avnstorp (1982)5/11Double-blindPimozide919
CrossoverPlacebo989
Munro (1982)9/25OpenPimozide33c56c11c
Lyell (1983 [193])?/282Survey of dermatologists in United KingdomPimozide (n = 66)67249
Ungvari (1983, 1984)19/26OpenPimozide (n = 22)64e36
Haloperidol (n = 4)7525
Ungvari and Vladar (1984, 1986)10/10On-off-onPimozide and placebo100d90% relapse
Musalek et al. (1989)?/34Open (specialized clinic)Overall (n = 34)501535
TCAs for depression (n = 12)7525
Nootropics plus APs for organic/dementia-associated DI (n = 13)23869
Paholpak (1990)9/10OpenHaloperidol100
Trabert (1993)17/35Open (specialized clinic)Pimozide (n = 15), butyrophenones (n = 15), fluspirilene i.m. (n = 2), additional ADs in seven cases27b,f54b18b
Srinivasan et al. (1994)19/19Open (randomized)Trifluoperazine (n = 6), chlorpromazine (n = 3), haloperidol (n = 2)58b32b11b
Bilateral ECT (n = 8)751313
Trabert (1995)?/1223Meta-analysis of 193 articlesNo antipsychotics (n = 56)342938
Typical APs (n = 206)523217
Zomer et al. (1998)?/33RetrospectivePimozide (n = 24)332839
Other (n = 9)71380
Bhatia et al. (2000)32/52OpenPimozide (n = 46)523513
Freudenmann and Lepping (2008)28/63Meta-analysis of 434 papersAtypical APs (n = 63)3738521
  • a Abbreviations: ECT, electroconvulsive therapy; TCAs, tricyclic antidepressants; AD, antidepressants; APs, antipsychotics; i.m., intramuscularly; dec., decanoate; ++, full remission; +, response; 0, no effect.

  • b Cannot be assigned further to the single substances.

  • c Primary DI only.

  • d In both “on” phases.

  • e One patient also received fluspirilene intramuscularly.

  • f Data available on antipsychotics for only 32 patients and on outcome for only 33 patients.