TABLE 3.

DI: classification, diagnostic codes, and associationsa

ClassificationDiagnosis (code)Reference(s)
ICD-10DSM-IV-TR
Primary DI
    No underlying disorder or conditionPersistent delusional disorder (F22.0)Delusional disorder, somatic type (297.1) 30, 101, 108, 299, 322, 325
    Shared DIInduced psychotic disorder (F24)Shared psychotic disorder (297.3) 6, 57, 60, 84, 103, 111, 112, 115, 155, 165, 192, 208, 213, 216, 231, 238, 299, 300, 322, 326, 344
Secondary DI (secondary to another condition)
    Psychiatric (“functional”) as concomitant symptom
        Schizophrenia, usually paranoid[Schizophrenia] (F20.x)[Schizophrenia] (295.xx) 6, 19, 47, 61, 116, 136, 192, 198, 299, 317, 318, 322, 337, 344, 352
        Affective disorders, mainly major depressive disorder with psychotic symptoms[Mood disorder] (F3x.x)[Mood disorder] (296.xx) 6, 16, 35, 47, 85, 107, 110, 116, 123, 136, 172, 183, 192, 212, 237, 245, 289, 290, 295, 299, 300, 322, 344
        Oligophrenia/mental retardation[Mental retardation] (F7x)[Mental retardation] (317, 318) 46, 212, 213, 259, 295, 299
        Anxiety disorders 252, 300
        Borderline personality disorder 237
    Substance- or medication-related (“toxic”) psychosis due to:
        Psychotropic drugsAcute intoxication (intoxication psychosis; F1x.05) or psychotic disorder, predominantly delusional (F1x.51) or predominantly hallucinatory (F1x.52)Substance-induced psychotic disorder, with hallucinations (292.11), with delusions (292.12)
            Cocaine 51, 76, 83, 221, 297, 330
            Crack cocaine 337
            (Meth)amphetamine 65, 81, 156, 205, 299, 323
            Amphetamine plus THC 234
            Pemoline (dopamine-releasing agent) 164
            l-DOPA 311
            Methylphenidate 118, 303
            THC 76, 227
            Alcohol 32, 47, 136, 183, 227, 237, 295, 299
            Phenelzine (unselective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor) 7, 186
            Polysubstance use 47, 76, 237
        MedicationsOrganic hallucinosis/delusional disorder (F06.0/F06.2)Substance-induced psychotic disorder, with hallucinations (292.11), with delusions (292.12)
            Corticosteroids 136, 299
            Antibiotics (clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin) 306, 329
            Alpha b2 interferon plus ribavirin 273
            Topiramate 88
            Bromide intoxication 182
    Based on other brain pathologies (“macroscopic”) or general medical conditionsOrganic hallucinosis/delusional disorder (F06.0/F06.2) or dementia/delirium (see below) or persistant delusional disorder (F22.0), when DI is not considered to be a physiological consequence of the somatic disorderPsychotic disorder due to … (indicate the general medical condition), with delusions (293.81) or with hallucinations (293.82), or dementia/dilirium (see below) or delusional disorder, somatic type (297.1), when DI is not considered to be a physiological consequence of the somatic disorder
        Brain disorders
            Neurodegenerative disorders
                Dementia, Alzheimer type[Dementia] (F00-F03)[Dementia] (294) 35, 46, 47, 55, 108, 149, 198, 237, 251, 270, 299, 313, 323
                Cortical atrophy 141
                Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy 167, 311
                Huntington's disease 226
                Multiple sclerosis 192
                Brain stem and thalamus atrophy 131
                Torticollis spasmodicus 11
            Neurovascular disorders
                Vascular/subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy/dementia 30, 68, 96, 97, 135, 138, 141, 183, 198, 299, 315, 333
                Stroke 2, 37, 68, 123, 192, 242, 244, 278, 294, 308, 336
                Intracerebral hemorrhage 89
                Subarachnoid hemorrhage 68
            Brain tumors 30, 138, 183, 217, 219, 283, 315, 333
                Pituitary tumor 30, 183, 217, 315
                Craniopharyngioma 333
            Infections
                Meningitis 268, 299
                Encephalitis 299
                Neurosyphilis 32, 78, 136, 299
                HIV encephalopathy 106, 350
            Traumatic brain injury, including in thalamus 14, 268, 299
            Posttraumatic epilepsy 316
            Normal pressure hydrocephalus 172
            Delirium, acute confusional states[Delirium] (F05)[Delirium] (293.0, 292.81, 780.09) 47, 251
                Central anticholinergic delirium (doxepine, cetirizine) 266
    General medical conditions (with pruritus or paresthesia)
        Infections
            Tuberculosis 344
            Leprosy 19, 33, 36
            Gonorrhea 32
        Endocrine conditions
            Diabetes mellitus 19, 52, 192, 198, 268, 299, 345
            Hypothyroidism 132
            Panhypopituitarism 207
            Hypoparathyroidism 324
            Postpartum 170
        Oncologic/hematologic conditions
            Solid tumors, lymphoma 19, 30
            Leukemia 30, 299
            Anemia 192, 268
        Vitamin deficiency
            B1 9
            Niacin (B3) (pellagra) 192, 264
            Folic acid (B9) 9, 192, 207, 299
            B12 192, 212, 263
        Rheumatic conditions
            Systemic lupus erythematosus 133
            M. Behçet 67, 268
        Renal failure 192, 268, 300
        Cholestasis with hyperbilirubinemia 192, 247, 299
        Sensory deficits
            Blindness 295, 299
            Deafness 295, 299
        Cardiovascular conditions
            Congestive heart failure 19, 78, 96, 135, 198
            Absolute arrhythmia 198
            Arterial hypertension 19, 78, 135, 198, 268
        Other
            Hypernatremia 89
  • a Diagnoses appearing in square brackets need to be further specified according to the respective diagnostic system.