TABLE 3.

DI: classification, diagnostic codes, and associationsa

ClassificationDiagnosis (code)Reference(s)
ICD-10DSM-IV-TR
Primary DI
    No underlying disorder or conditionPersistent delusional disorder (F22.0)Delusional disorder, somatic type (297.1)30, 101, 108, 299, 322, 325
    Shared DIInduced psychotic disorder (F24)Shared psychotic disorder (297.3)6, 57, 60, 84, 103, 111, 112, 115, 155, 165, 192, 208, 213, 216, 231, 238, 299, 300, 322, 326, 344
Secondary DI (secondary to another condition)
    Psychiatric (“functional”) as concomitant symptom
        Schizophrenia, usually paranoid[Schizophrenia] (F20.x)[Schizophrenia] (295.xx)6, 19, 47, 61, 116, 136, 192, 198, 299, 317, 318, 322, 337, 344, 352
        Affective disorders, mainly major depressive disorder with psychotic symptoms[Mood disorder] (F3x.x)[Mood disorder] (296.xx)6, 16, 35, 47, 85, 107, 110, 116, 123, 136, 172, 183, 192, 212, 237, 245, 289, 290, 295, 299, 300, 322, 344
        Oligophrenia/mental retardation[Mental retardation] (F7x)[Mental retardation] (317, 318)46, 212, 213, 259, 295, 299
        Anxiety disorders252, 300
        Borderline personality disorder237
    Substance- or medication-related (“toxic”) psychosis due to:
        Psychotropic drugsAcute intoxication (intoxication psychosis; F1x.05) or psychotic disorder, predominantly delusional (F1x.51) or predominantly hallucinatory (F1x.52)Substance-induced psychotic disorder, with hallucinations (292.11), with delusions (292.12)
            Cocaine51, 76, 83, 221, 297, 330
            Crack cocaine337
            (Meth)amphetamine65, 81, 156, 205, 299, 323
            Amphetamine plus THC234
            Pemoline (dopamine-releasing agent)164
            l-DOPA311
            Methylphenidate118, 303
            THC76, 227
            Alcohol32, 47, 136, 183, 227, 237, 295, 299
            Phenelzine (unselective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor)7, 186
            Polysubstance use47, 76, 237
        MedicationsOrganic hallucinosis/delusional disorder (F06.0/F06.2)Substance-induced psychotic disorder, with hallucinations (292.11), with delusions (292.12)
            Corticosteroids136, 299
            Antibiotics (clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin)306, 329
            Alpha b2 interferon plus ribavirin273
            Topiramate88
            Bromide intoxication182
    Based on other brain pathologies (“macroscopic”) or general medical conditionsOrganic hallucinosis/delusional disorder (F06.0/F06.2) or dementia/delirium (see below) or persistant delusional disorder (F22.0), when DI is not considered to be a physiological consequence of the somatic disorderPsychotic disorder due to … (indicate the general medical condition), with delusions (293.81) or with hallucinations (293.82), or dementia/dilirium (see below) or delusional disorder, somatic type (297.1), when DI is not considered to be a physiological consequence of the somatic disorder
        Brain disorders
            Neurodegenerative disorders
                Dementia, Alzheimer type[Dementia] (F00-F03)[Dementia] (294)35, 46, 47, 55, 108, 149, 198, 237, 251, 270, 299, 313, 323
                Cortical atrophy141
                Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy167, 311
                Huntington's disease226
                Multiple sclerosis192
                Brain stem and thalamus atrophy131
                Torticollis spasmodicus11
            Neurovascular disorders
                Vascular/subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy/dementia30, 68, 96, 97, 135, 138, 141, 183, 198, 299, 315, 333
                Stroke2, 37, 68, 123, 192, 242, 244, 278, 294, 308, 336
                Intracerebral hemorrhage89
                Subarachnoid hemorrhage68
            Brain tumors30, 138, 183, 217, 219, 283, 315, 333
                Pituitary tumor30, 183, 217, 315
                Craniopharyngioma333
            Infections
                Meningitis268, 299
                Encephalitis299
                Neurosyphilis32, 78, 136, 299
                HIV encephalopathy106, 350
            Traumatic brain injury, including in thalamus14, 268, 299
            Posttraumatic epilepsy316
            Normal pressure hydrocephalus172
            Delirium, acute confusional states[Delirium] (F05)[Delirium] (293.0, 292.81, 780.09)47, 251
                Central anticholinergic delirium (doxepine, cetirizine)266
    General medical conditions (with pruritus or paresthesia)
        Infections
            Tuberculosis344
            Leprosy19, 33, 36
            Gonorrhea32
        Endocrine conditions
            Diabetes mellitus19, 52, 192, 198, 268, 299, 345
            Hypothyroidism132
            Panhypopituitarism207
            Hypoparathyroidism324
            Postpartum170
        Oncologic/hematologic conditions
            Solid tumors, lymphoma19, 30
            Leukemia30, 299
            Anemia192, 268
        Vitamin deficiency
            B19
            Niacin (B3) (pellagra)192, 264
            Folic acid (B9)9, 192, 207, 299
            B12192, 212, 263
        Rheumatic conditions
            Systemic lupus erythematosus133
            M. Behçet67, 268
        Renal failure192, 268, 300
        Cholestasis with hyperbilirubinemia192, 247, 299
        Sensory deficits
            Blindness295, 299
            Deafness295, 299
        Cardiovascular conditions
            Congestive heart failure19, 78, 96, 135, 198
            Absolute arrhythmia198
            Arterial hypertension19, 78, 135, 198, 268
        Other
            Hypernatremia89
  • a Diagnoses appearing in square brackets need to be further specified according to the respective diagnostic system.