Epidemiology of DI: classic and large studies (n > 10)

Author (yr) of studyCountryanSex ratio (female to male)Mean or median age (or range) (yr)Mean or median duration of illness (yr)Presence of specimen sign or SPDbInfestation
Perrin (1896)F32:1480.9SSUnusual flea, lice, parasites
Schwarz (1929)D55:0541.5Lice, small animals and bacteria, insects
Wilhelmi (1935)D53:2504SPDInsects (new to science), bacteria
Ekbom (1938)S77:0581SS, SPDLittle insects/animals, mites, pubic lice, worms
Wilson and Miller (1946)USA62:1517SPDLice or insects (new to science)
Böttcher (1954)D193.8:138-68SPDVermin
Döhring (1960)D773.5:150-70SS, SPDVermin
Skott (1978)S572.8:1644SS, SPDInsects, flies, ticks, etc.
Lyell (1983 [192])UK282 (survey)2:119-90SS, SPDParasites (survey)
Reilly and Batchelor (1986)UK53 (survey)1.5:120-92>1 (61%)Parasites (survey)
Bourgeois et al. (1986)F150 (survey)5.7:168>2 (50%)
Marneros et al. (1988)D28 and 204:149-78“In skin/body” (organic), “on skin” (schizophrenia)
Musalek et al. (1989)A1074.6:1>2 (29%)SSParasites
Ohtaki (1991)J941.8:146/53 (males/females)SPDMites
Trabert (1991)D115 (survey)3.1:1603 (maximum, 35)SS
Trabert (1993)D353.4:1593.25SS, SPDInsects, bacteria, worms, fungi
Trabert (1995)D1,223 (review)2.4:1573SPDReview
Huber (1997)D362.3:125-84SS, SPD
Zomer et al. (1998)NL331.5:1571.3SS, SPDParasites
Bhatia et al. (2000)IND521.7:1>0.5Insects
Freudenmann and Lepping (2008)D63 (review)1.3:166 (17-90)1.4 (median)SS, SPDReview
Summary>1,4001.3-5.7:117-92∼3 (days to 35 yr)
  • a F, France; D, Germany; USA, United States; S, Sweden; UK, United Kingdom; A, Austria; IND, India; NL, The Netherlands; J, Japan.

  • b SS, specimen sign; SPD, shared psychotic disorder.