TABLE 3.

Presumptive functions of Anisakis simplex-derived proteinase inhibitors

FunctionPoint of interventionProteinase type inhibitedInhibitor nameReference(s)
Modulation of antigen presentation by MHCAntigen processing and peptide loadingCysteineCystatins 229
Downregulation of T-cell responsesIL-10 production, reduced expression of HLA-DR and CD86Cysteine
Upregulation of NO productionFrom IFN-γ-stimulated lymphocytesCysteine
AllergenicStimulate IgE responses; IgE productionCysteineKininogen
Regulation of digestive proteinasesInactivation of digestive proteasesCysteine
Anti-inflammatoryInduction of TNFa and increased IL-10; reduction of IL-12CysteineStefins
ReproductionNot knownSerineSerpins 168
Modulation of proteinases of granulocyte originNeutrophil elastase, mast cell protease, and cathepsin GSerine 193, 200, 226
Protection from digestion by hostTrypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsinSerine 225, 247
AnticoagulantFactor Xa, factor VIIaSerineSmapins 158
  • a TNF, tumor necrosis factor.