TABLE 4.

Associations between causative bacterial organisms isolated in recurrent bacterial meningitis and underlying defects

OrganismDefectsa
S. pneumoniaeHead injury/basal skull fracture
Congenital basal skull defect
Meningocele/meningoencephalocele
Neurenteric cyst
Inner ear dysplasia/Mondini dysplasia
Asplenia
XLA
IgG subclass deficiency
Early complement deficiency (C2-C4)
HIV infection
Chronic otitis media/mastoiditis
N. meningitidisHead injury/basal skull fracture
Congenital basal skull defect
Meningocele/meningoencephalocele
Inner ear dysplasia/Mondini dysplasia
Complement deficiency (C2-C9)
H. influenzaeHead injury/basal skull fracture
Congenital basal skull defect
Neurenteric cyst
Inner ear dysplasia/Mondini dysplasia
Chronic otitis media/mastoiditis
S. aureusMeningocele/meningoencephalocele
Neurenteric cyst
Dermoid/epidermoid cyst/dermal sinus
Gram-negative, entericMeningocele (lumbosacral)
    organisms (E. coli, Klebsiella spp.,Dermoid/epidermoid cyst/dermal sinus
    Proteus spp.)Chronic parameningeal infections
Salmonella spp.HIV infection
  • a Boldface indicates conditions strongly associated with a particular organism(s).