TABLE 4.

Drugs used for treatment of VL

ProductBrand nameManufacturerAreas of licensure for VLaPrice per unitStandard treatment protocold
Sodium stibogluconate (pentavalent antimonial)PentostamGlaxoSmithKlineAf, Am, Ind, Eur40 GBP (public sector price from GSK) per vial at 100 mg/ml (100 ml)20 MKD for 30 days
Albert David (India)Af, Am, Ind, Eur3.25 Euros per vial at 100 mg/ml (30 ml) (via International Dispensary Association Amsterdam)20 MKD for 30 days
Meglumine antimoniate (pentavalent antimonial)GlucantimeSanofi-AventisAf, Am, Ind, EurUS$1.20 per ampoule at 85 mg/5 ml (no profit-no loss price, agreed with WHO, for treatment of leishmaniasis)20 MKD for 30 days
AMBCombinopharm (Spain)Af, Am, Ind, EurUS$1.91 per vial of 50 mg (236a)1 MKD for 15 days (alternate days)
L-AMBAmBisomeGileadUS, EurUS$20 per vial of 50 mg (reduced price, agreed with WHO, valid for public sector in developing countries for treatment of leishmaniasis)20-mg/kg total dose
ABLCAbelcetZeneusNo82.13 GBP per vial of 100 mg/20 mlbNo standard treatment protocol but has been used in doses similar to those for L-AMB
L-AMB in colloidal suspension with cholesteryl sulfateAmphocilBeaconNo104.10 GBP per vial of 50 mgcNo standard treatment protocol but has been used in doses similar to those for L-AMB
L-AMB in emulsionAmphomulBharat Serums and Vaccines (India)IndUS$10 per vial of 50 mg15-mg/kg total dose
ParomomycinGland Pharma (India)IndUS$10 for full course15 MKD for 21 days
MiltefosineImpavidoAeterna Zentaris (Germany)Af, Am, Ind, Eur108.50 Euros for 56 capsules of 50 mg for the public sector (www.medeor.org )100 mg/day for 28 days
Pentamidine mesylatePentamidineSanofi-AventisNoPentamidine is free for the treatment of leishmaniasis (agreement with WHO)Used for secondary prophylaxis (no known treatment protocol)
  • a Af, Africa; Am, America; In, Indian subcontinent; Eur, Europe; US, United States.

  • b British National Formulary, March 2007.

  • c P. Desjeux, Initiative for One World Health (www.iowh.org ), personal communication.

  • d MKD, milligrams per kilogram per day.