TABLE 4.

Substrate and inhibition profiles of the carbapenemases

Molecular classFunctional groupEnzymeHydrolysis profileaInhibition profilebReference(s)
PenicillinsEarly cephalosporinsExtended-spectrum cephalosporinsAztreonamCarbapenemsEDTAClavulanic acid
A2fNMC++++++124
IMI++++++183
SME++±+++179
KPC++++++4
GES+++±+174,219
B13IMP+++++224
VIM+++++224
GIM+++++224
SPM+++++224
D2dOXA++±±±225
  • a Symbols: +, strong hydrolysis (generally, kcat of >2 s−1); ±, weak hydrolysis (generally, kcat of 0.5 to 2 s−1); −, no measurable hydrolysis reported (generally, kcat of <0.5 s−1).

  • b Symbols: +, reported inhibition; ±, variable inhibition among β-lactamase family members; −, no inhibition reported.