TABLE 5.

Worldwide emergence of metallo-β-lactamases in the Enterobacteriaceae

CountryIsolation dateaPublication dateOrganismEnzymebNo. of isolatesLocationPlasmid typeIntegron typeReference(s)
Australia20022004K. pneumoniaeIMP-41PlasmidNot tested1172
AustraliaE. coliIMP-41PlasmidNot tested1172
AustraliaNA2005K. pneumoniaeIMP-42PlasmidConjugative143
E. cloacaeIMP-41PlasmidConjugative143
C. amalonaticusIMP-41PlasmidConjugative143
Brazil20032005K. pneumoniaeIMP-11Chromosome1110
ChinaNA2001C. youngaeIMP-41PlasmidConjugative?63
Greece20012003E. coliVIM-11PlasmidConjugative1136
Greece20012004E. coliVIM-14 (clonal)PlasmidConjugative1193
Greece20022003K. pneumoniaeVIM-117PlasmidConjugative154
Greece20032005E. cloacaeVIM-11Chromosome148
Greece2003-20052006K. pneumoniaeVIM-15 (clonal)PlasmidConjugative1117
Greece2004-20052005K. pneumoniaeVIM-127 (clonal)PlasmidConjugative179
France2003-20042006K. pneumoniaeVIM-18 (clonal)PlasmidNonconjugative191
Italy20022004K. pneumoniaeVIM-41PlasmidConjugativeNot tested120
E. cloacaeVIM-41PlasmidConjugativeNot tested120
Japan19931995S. marcescensIMP-1-like4Multiple plasmidsConjugative and nonconjugativeNot tested80
Japan1994-19951996K. pneumoniaeIMP-1-like1Not testedNot tested3195
S. marcescensIMP-1-like9Not testedNot tested3195
JapanNA1998S. flexneriIMP-31PlasmidConjugative181, 152
Japan1991-19961998S. marcescensIMP-1-like13 (some clonal)Not testedNot tested72
C. freundiiIMP-1-like1Not testedNot tested72
Japan19962001S. marcescensIMP-61PlasmidConjugative1244
Japan1998-20002003S. marcescensIMP-15Not testedNot tested235
C. freundiiIMP-11Not testedNot tested8
P. vulgarisIMP-11Not testedNot tested8
Japan2001-20022003S. marcescensIMP-1-like47Not tested1197
K. pneumoniaeIMP-1-like23Not tested1197
E. coliIMP-1-like17Not tested1197
E. cloacaeIMP-1-like5Not tested1197
C. freundiiIMP-1-like3Not tested1197
K. oxytocaIMP-1-like2Not tested1197
P. rettgeriIMP-1-like2Not tested1197
M. morganiiIMP-1-like1Not tested1197
E. aerogenesIMP-1-like1Not tested1197
PortugalNA2005K. oxytocaVIM-24 (clonal)PlasmidNonconjugative130
Singapore19961999K. pneumoniaeIMP-11PlasmidConjugativeNot tested95
South Korea20002003E. cloacaeVIM-21Chromosome187
South Korea20002002S. marcescensVIM-21Not tested1250
South Korea2003-20042006K. pneumoniaeVIM-2-like2Not testedNot tested250
E. cloacaeVIM-2-like1Not testedNot tested250
S. marcescensVIM-2-like1Not testedNot tested250
Spain20032005K. pneumoniaeVIM-11PlasmidConjugative1207
E. coliVIM-11PlasmidConjugative1207
Taiwan19982001K. pneumoniaeIMP-81PlasmidConjugative1238
Taiwan1999-20002002E. cloacaeIMP-836 (mostly clonal)PlasmidConjugativeNot tested237
C. freundiiVIM-21PlasmidConjugativeNot tested237
Tunisia20052006K. pneumoniaeVIM-420 (clonal)Plasmid197
TurkeyBefore 20022005E. cloacaeVIM-51PlasmidNonconjugative147
  • a NA, not available.

  • b IMP-1-like and VIM-2-like enzymes were detected by PCR or colony hybridization but were not sequenced.