TABLE 5.

Worldwide emergence of metallo-β-lactamases in the Enterobacteriaceae

CountryIsolation dateaPublication dateOrganismEnzymebNo. of isolatesLocationPlasmid typeIntegron typeReference(s)
Australia20022004 K. pneumoniae IMP-41PlasmidNot tested1 172
Australia E. coli IMP-41PlasmidNot tested1 172
AustraliaNA2005 K. pneumoniae IMP-42PlasmidConjugative1 43
E. cloacae IMP-41PlasmidConjugative1 43
C. amalonaticus IMP-41PlasmidConjugative1 43
Brazil20032005 K. pneumoniae IMP-11Chromosome1 110
ChinaNA2001 C. youngae IMP-41PlasmidConjugative? 63
Greece20012003 E. coli VIM-11PlasmidConjugative1 136
Greece20012004 E. coli VIM-14 (clonal)PlasmidConjugative1 193
Greece20022003 K. pneumoniae VIM-117PlasmidConjugative1 54
Greece20032005 E. cloacae VIM-11Chromosome1 48
Greece2003-20052006 K. pneumoniae VIM-15 (clonal)PlasmidConjugative1 117
Greece2004-20052005 K. pneumoniae VIM-127 (clonal)PlasmidConjugative1 79
France2003-20042006 K. pneumoniae VIM-18 (clonal)PlasmidNonconjugative1 91
Italy20022004 K. pneumoniae VIM-41PlasmidConjugativeNot tested 120
E. cloacae VIM-41PlasmidConjugativeNot tested 120
Japan19931995 S. marcescens IMP-1-like4Multiple plasmidsConjugative and nonconjugativeNot tested 80
Japan1994-19951996 K. pneumoniae IMP-1-like1Not testedNot tested3 195
S. marcescens IMP-1-like9Not testedNot tested3 195
JapanNA1998 S. flexneri IMP-31PlasmidConjugative1 81, 152
Japan1991-19961998 S. marcescens IMP-1-like13 (some clonal)Not testedNot tested 72
C. freundii IMP-1-like1Not testedNot tested 72
Japan19962001 S. marcescens IMP-61PlasmidConjugative1 244
Japan1998-20002003 S. marcescens IMP-15Not testedNot tested 235
C. freundii IMP-11Not testedNot tested 8
P. vulgaris IMP-11Not testedNot tested 8
Japan2001-20022003 S. marcescens IMP-1-like47Not tested1 197
K. pneumoniae IMP-1-like23Not tested1 197
E. coli IMP-1-like17Not tested1 197
E. cloacae IMP-1-like5Not tested1 197
C. freundii IMP-1-like3Not tested1 197
K. oxytoca IMP-1-like2Not tested1 197
P. rettgeri IMP-1-like2Not tested1 197
M. morganii IMP-1-like1Not tested1 197
E. aerogenes IMP-1-like1Not tested1 197
PortugalNA2005 K. oxytoca VIM-24 (clonal)PlasmidNonconjugative1 30
Singapore19961999 K. pneumoniae IMP-11PlasmidConjugativeNot tested 95
South Korea20002003 E. cloacae VIM-21Chromosome1 87
South Korea20002002 S. marcescens VIM-21Not tested1 250
South Korea2003-20042006 K. pneumoniae VIM-2-like2Not testedNot tested 250
E. cloacae VIM-2-like1Not testedNot tested 250
S. marcescens VIM-2-like1Not testedNot tested 250
Spain20032005 K. pneumoniae VIM-11PlasmidConjugative1 207
E. coli VIM-11PlasmidConjugative1 207
Taiwan19982001 K. pneumoniae IMP-81PlasmidConjugative1 238
Taiwan1999-20002002 E. cloacae IMP-836 (mostly clonal)PlasmidConjugativeNot tested 237
C. freundii VIM-21PlasmidConjugativeNot tested 237
Tunisia20052006 K. pneumoniae VIM-420 (clonal)Plasmid1 97
TurkeyBefore 20022005 E. cloacae VIM-51PlasmidNonconjugative1 47
  • a NA, not available.

  • b IMP-1-like and VIM-2-like enzymes were detected by PCR or colony hybridization but were not sequenced.