TABLE 2.

Emergence of class A carbapenemases

β-LactamaseYrLocationOrganismNo. of isolatesGene locationapIbGenBank accession no.Reference(s)
SME-11982London, United KingdomS. marcescens2Chrom9.7U60295c146, 199, 243
1985MinnesotaS. marcescens1Chrom9.5179, 199
1999IllinoisS. marcescens2NR8.549
SME-21992CaliforniaS. marcescens5Chrom9.5AF275256179
1994-1999MassachusettsS. marcescens19Chrom9.5179
SME-32003IllinoisS. marcescens2Chrom9.5AY584237178
IMI-11984CaliforniaE. cloacae2Chrom7.05U50278183
IMI-22001Hangzhou, ChinaE. cloacae1Plasmid8.1AY780889249
NMC-A1990Paris, FranceE. cloacae1Chrom6.9Z21956143, 149
2000Buenos Aires, ArgentinaE. cloacae1NR6.9AJ536087181
2003WashingtonE. cloacae1NR6.9175
KPC-11996North CarolinaK. pneumoniae1Plasmid6.7AF297554245
KPC-21998-1999MarylandK. pneumoniae4Plasmid6.9AY034847138
KPC-21998MarylandSalmonella enterica serotype Cubana1Plasmid6.7AF481906137
1998New YorkK. oxytoca1Plasmid6.7AY210887246
1997-2001New YorkK. pneumoniae18NR6.713
K. oxytoca1NR6.7
2001MassachusettsEnterobacter spp.4Plasmid6.974
2001-2003New YorkE. cloacae1NR6.714
E. aerogenes1NR6.7
2002-2003New YorkK. pneumoniae29NRNR15
2003-2004New YorkK. pneumoniae95NRNR17
2004New YorkK. pneumoniae59NR6.716
2004Zhejiang, ChinaK. pneumoniae1Plasmid6.7DQ897687229
2005Paris, FranceK. pneumoniae1Plasmid6.8145
2005Medellin, ColombiaK. pneumoniae2Plasmid7.0DQ523564217
2005New YorkK. pneumoniae3NRNR118
2005IsraelE. coli4Plasmid6.7147
2006Medellin, ColombiaP. aeruginosa3Plasmid/Chrom6.8216
2006Medellin, ColombiaC. freundii1Plasmid6.8216
KPC-32000-2001New YorkK. pneumoniae24Plasmid6.5AF395881233
2003New YorkE. cloacae1NR6.7AY52295014
2004New YorkK. pneumoniae3NR6.716
KPC-42004ScotlandEnterobacter spp.1NRNRAY700571None (unpublished)
GES-22000South AfricaP. aeruginosa1Plasmid5.8AF326355174
2000South AfricaP. aeruginosa8Plasmid5.8173
2004South AfricaP. aeruginosa51NRNR230
GES-42002JapanK. pneumoniae1Plasmid6.9AB11620219, 220
GES-52004Athens, GreeceE. coli1Plasmid5.8AY494717218
2004KoreaK. pneumoniae6Plasmid5.886
GES-62004Athens, GreeceK. pneumoniae1Plasmid6.9AY494718218
  • a Chrom, chromosome; NR, not reported.

  • b NR, not reported.

  • c Two sequences differing by a single amino acid, Z28968 and U60295, for the S. marcescens S6 carbapenemase are reported in the GenBank database. Structural analysis and further sequencing confirmed U60295 as the correct sequence for the SME-1 enzyme (179, 199).