TABLE 2.

Emergence of class A carbapenemases

β-LactamaseYrLocationOrganismNo. of isolatesGene locationapIbGenBank accession no.Reference(s)
SME-11982London, United Kingdom S. marcescens 2Chrom9.7 U60295 c 146, 199, 243
1985Minnesota S. marcescens 1Chrom9.5 179, 199
1999Illinois S. marcescens 2NR8.5 49
SME-21992California S. marcescens 5Chrom9.5 AF275256 179
1994-1999Massachusetts S. marcescens 19Chrom9.5 179
SME-32003Illinois S. marcescens 2Chrom9.5 AY584237 178
IMI-11984California E. cloacae 2Chrom7.05 U50278 183
IMI-22001Hangzhou, China E. cloacae 1Plasmid8.1 AY780889 249
NMC-A1990Paris, France E. cloacae 1Chrom6.9 Z21956 143, 149
2000Buenos Aires, Argentina E. cloacae 1NR6.9 AJ536087 181
2003Washington E. cloacae 1NR6.9 175
KPC-11996North Carolina K. pneumoniae 1Plasmid6.7 AF297554 245
KPC-21998-1999Maryland K. pneumoniae 4Plasmid6.9 AY034847 138
KPC-21998Maryland Salmonella enterica serotype Cubana1Plasmid6.7 AF481906 137
1998New York K. oxytoca 1Plasmid6.7 AY210887 246
1997-2001New York K. pneumoniae 18NR6.7 13
K. oxytoca 1NR6.7
2001Massachusetts Enterobacter spp.4Plasmid6.9 74
2001-2003New York E. cloacae 1NR6.7 14
E. aerogenes 1NR6.7
2002-2003New York K. pneumoniae 29NRNR 15
2003-2004New York K. pneumoniae 95NRNR 17
2004New York K. pneumoniae 59NR6.7 16
2004Zhejiang, China K. pneumoniae 1Plasmid6.7 DQ897687 229
2005Paris, France K. pneumoniae 1Plasmid6.8 145
2005Medellin, Colombia K. pneumoniae 2Plasmid7.0 DQ523564 217
2005New York K. pneumoniae 3NRNR 118
2005Israel E. coli 4Plasmid6.7 147
2006Medellin, Colombia P. aeruginosa 3Plasmid/Chrom6.8 216
2006Medellin, Colombia C. freundii 1Plasmid6.8 216
KPC-32000-2001New York K. pneumoniae 24Plasmid6.5 AF395881 233
2003New York E. cloacae 1NR6.7 AY522950 14
2004New York K. pneumoniae 3NR6.7 16
KPC-42004Scotland Enterobacter spp.1NRNR AY700571 None (unpublished)
GES-22000South Africa P. aeruginosa 1Plasmid5.8 AF326355 174
2000South Africa P. aeruginosa 8Plasmid5.8 173
2004South Africa P. aeruginosa 51NRNR 230
GES-42002Japan K. pneumoniae 1Plasmid6.9 AB11620 219, 220
GES-52004Athens, Greece E. coli 1Plasmid5.8 AY494717 218
2004Korea K. pneumoniae 6Plasmid5.8 86
GES-62004Athens, Greece K. pneumoniae 1Plasmid6.9 AY494718 218
  • a Chrom, chromosome; NR, not reported.

  • b NR, not reported.

  • c Two sequences differing by a single amino acid, Z28968 and U60295, for the S. marcescens S6 carbapenemase are reported in the GenBank database. Structural analysis and further sequencing confirmed U60295 as the correct sequence for the SME-1 enzyme (179, 199).