TABLE 9.

Passive and active immunization against SARS

Type of vaccineTarget (animal model)ResponseaReference(s)
Passive immunization
    Human monoclonal antibodyS protein (ferret)Decrease in lung viral titer, decrease in viral shedding, prevention of virally induced tissue pathology 329
S protein (BALB/c mice)Decrease in lung/nasal viral titers 333
S protein (BALB/c mice)Decrease in lung viral titers 313
    Human monoclonal antibody from transgenic (HuMantibody) miceS protein (BALB/c mice)Decrease in lung/nasal viral titers 110
Active immunization
    Inactivated whole virusInactivated SARS-CoV (BALB/c mice)Neutralizing antibodies 323
Inactivated SARS-CoV (BALB/c mice)Neutralizing antibodies; specific IgA in tracheal/lung wash fluid with adjuvant-added or PEG-precipitated vaccine only 274
Inactivated SARS-CoV (BALB/c mice, rabbits)Specific antibodies recognizing RBD of S1; blocked binding of RBD to ACE2; significant decrease in S protein-mediated cell entry in pseudotyped virus assay 134
Inactivated SARS-CoV (BALB/c mice)Neutralizing antibodies 306, 317
    Recombinant protein fragmentS protein (BALB/c mice)Neutralizing antibodies 19
S protein (BALB/c mice, rabbits)Neutralizing antibodies 415
S protein (rabbits)Neutralizing antibodies against receptor binding domain 133
S protein (BALB/c mice)Neutralizing antibodies against receptor binding domain 132
    Adenoviral vectorS, M, and N proteins (rhesus macaques)Neutralizing antibodies, T-cell responses 102
    Modified vaccinia virus AnkaraS protein (BALB/c mice)Neutralizing antibodies; decrease in lung/nasal viral titers, passive serum transfer protective 18
S protein (BALB/c mice, rabbits, Chinese rhesus monkeys)Neutralizing antibodies; decrease in lung/nasal viral titers 55
S protein (ferrets)Neutralizing antibodies; enhanced hepatitis in vaccinated ferrets when challenged with SARS-CoV 355
    Recombinant attenuated HPIF3S protein (African green monkey)Neutralizing antibodies, decrease in viral shedding 25
    Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virusS protein (BALB/c mice)Neutralizing antibodies, decrease in lung viral titer 171
    Attenuated rabies virusS or N protein (BALB/c mice)Neutralizing antibodies specific to S but not with N protein 94
    Recombinant Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particleS or N protein (young and senescent BALB/c mice)Good protection in young but partial protection in senescent mice with S vaccine; enhanced immunopathology with N vaccine 85
    DNA vaccineS protein (BALB/c mice)Neutralizing antibodies, T-cell responses; decrease in lung/nasal viral titers; serum transfer protective 399
S protein (BALB/c mice)Neutralizing antibodies, T-cell responses 123, 412
E, M, and N proteins (BALB/c mice)DNA encoding N induced highest neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses 164
N protein (C3H/He mice)Specific antibodies, T-cell responses 433
N protein (C57BL/6 mice)T-cell responses; decrease in surrogate viral titer in lungs 176
S protein (rabbits)Neutralizing antibodies 348
N protein (mice)Specific antibodies, N-specific splenocyte proliferation responses, DTH and CD8+ CTL responses 424
    DNA vaccine boosted by recombinant protein produced in E. coliS protein (BALB/c mice)Very high S-specific neutralizing antibodies 370
  • a PEG, polyethylene glycol; RBD, receptor-binding domain; DTH, delayed-type hypersensitivity; CTL, cytotoxic T cell.