TABLE 23.

Candidemia risk factors for hospitalized patientsa

Risk factorbPossible role in infection
Antimicrobial agents*Promote fungal colonization
    NumberProvide intravascular access
    Duration
Adrenal corticosteroidImmunosuppression
AgeImmunosuppression
Chemotherapy*Immunosuppression
Mucosal disruption
MalignancyImmunosuppression
Previous colonization*Translocation across mucosa
Gastric acid suppression*Colonization and translocation
Indwelling catheter*Direct vascular access
    Central venous catheterContaminated product
    Pressure transducer
TPN*Direct vascular access
Hyperglycemia
Contamination of infusate
Neutropenia (<500/mm3)*Immunosuppression
Surgery (gastrointestinal)*Route of infection
Direct vascular access
Mechanical ventilationRoute of infection
Renal failure/hemodialysis*Route of infection
Immunosuppression
MalnutritionImmunosuppression
Hospital or intensive care unit stayExposure to pathogens
Exposure to additional risk factors
Severity of diseaseImmunosuppression
Invasive procedures
  • a Data compiled from references 59, 168, 180, 181, 185, 210, 227, 235, 238, and 309.

  • b *, independent risk factor.