TABLE 3.

Rapid nonculture, non-IF methods for RSV or influenza A and B virus antigen detection: comparison to cell culture, 2000 to 2005-2006

VirusManufacturer/test name/principle/time (min)Sensitivity (%)aSpecificity (%)aPPV (%)bNPV (%)bReference
Influenza virusBecton Dickinson (Sparks, MD)/Directigen Flu A and B/EIA, membrane-based cassette; viral antigen in specimen is bound nonspecifically on membrane, labeled antiviral antibodies bind to bound antigens and produce color change when substrate is added; detects and differentiates influenza A and B virus antigens; multistep procedure/15-2044100919723
7298899525
9395839830
551001009241
561001005483
86948992139
56989385160
Binax (Portland, ME)/Binax NOW Flu A and B/lateral flow;6296NAcNA37
    one-step application of specimen to test strips; as specimen6598899347
    migrates, viral antigens in specimen are bound by5393945283
    membrane-bound, conjugated (with colored particles)76949381160
    antiviral antibodies; antigen-conjugate complexes are captured by immobilized anti-influenza virus antibody, forming a colored line; detects and differentiates influenza A and B virus antigens; 1-step procedure/15
Biostar (Thermo Electron Corp. [formerly Thermo BioStar,5574735612
    Inc.], Boulder, CO)/BioStar Flu AB OIA/OIA; viral4897NANA69
    antibody on silicon wafer binds viral antigen in specimen;93828492137
    enzyme-labeled antiviral antibodies bind to bound antigen,6495NANA143
    producing optical changes in thickness and color change when substrate is added; detects and differentiates influenza A and B virus antigens; multistep procedure/15-20
Quidel (San Diego, CA)/QuickVue Flu A and B/lateral flow;7098859525
    extraction of influenza virus antigens, then application of77987498124
    specimen to test strip; antiviral antibodies on test strip95768193137
    capture viral antigen in sample, causing a colored band to91867895139
    form; detects influenza A and B viruses (does not differentiate); 2 steps/10
Remel (Lenexa, KS)/Xpect Flu A and B/lateral flow; dilute specimen, apply to strip; labeled (with colored particles) antiviral antibodies on strip bind viral antigen in sample and produce colored band; detects and differentiates influenza A and B virus antigens; 2 steps/15-20941001009824
ZymeTx (Oklahoma City, OK)/ZstatFlu/viral neuraminidase6583NANA76
    acts on chromogenic substrate to produce colored70927690113
    precipitate; detects influenza A and B viruses (does not72838075137
    differentiate)/5 “hands on,” 30 total
RSVdBecton Dickinson/Directigen EZ RSV/lateral flow59989388115
Becton Dickinson/Directigen RSV/EIA77968892115
86939591131
Binax/NOW RSV/lateral flow89100100953
741001009014
8794809299
8910010095115
Biostar/RSV OIA/OIA8899.699952
Remel/Xpect RSV/lateral flow7598959014
  • a Sensitivity and specificity compared to virus isolation in cell culture.

  • b NPV, predictive value of a negative result; PPV, predictive value of a positive result.

  • c NA, not available.

  • d See corresponding influenza virus test for method, etc.