TABLE 3.

Adhesins and virulence-associated proteins of H. pylori

Protein/gene clusterPredicted roleAssociation with H. pylori-related diseaseReference(s)
BabABinds to fucosylated Leb blood group antigen on cells babA2 allele has been implicated in peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer 63, 221, 246, 285, 511, 516, 702, 703
SabABinds to sialyl-Lex and sialyl-Lea antigens and is involved in activation of neutrophilsNone 117, 387, 639
SabBBinding specificity is unknownAbsence of SabB expression via phase variation is associated with duodenal ulcers 117
OipAOipA has been reported to assist in IL-8 induction, but this association is not universalExpression of OipA is linked to cag status and development of duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer 16, 17, 246, 330, 705, 706
AlpA and AlpBInactivation of the alpA and alpB genes results in decreased adherence to gastric epithelial cells and absence of colonization in a guinea pig modelUnknown 114, 467, 470
HP-NAPHP-NAP is reported to activate neutrophils and is a possible adhesin to mucin; possible function in protection of H. pylori DNA or iron storageUnknown 172, 438, 439, 452, 631
Plasticity region (jhp0947-jhp0950)UnknownPresence of the plasticity region is associated with development of gastric cancer, MALT lymphoma, and duodenal ulcers 84, 115, 462, 463, 545
IceAThe iceA1 allele encodes a CATG-recognizing restriction endonucleaseIceA1 has been associated with peptic ulcer disease, but this association is not universal 129, 185, 313, 495, 648, 700, 704
DupAThe dupA gene encodes a VirB4 ATPase homologAssociated with duodenal ulcers but also with reduced risk for gastric atrophy and cancer 376