TABLE 5.

High probability of VAP

Finding
Radiographic evidence of cavitation or necrosis of the pulmonary infiltrate, particularly if rapid and progressive
An empyema with an adjacent pulmonary infiltrate
Simultaneous recovery of the same microorganism from respiratory secretions and pleural fluid
Simultaneous recovery of the same microorganism from respiratory secretions and blood, with no other source of the bacteremia
Consistent histology on lung biopsy
Positive Gram stain/culture on transthoracic needle aspirate
Chest X ray demonstrating an air space process abutting a fissure
Chest X ray demonstrating an air bronchogram, especially if single