TABLE 23.

Real-time PCR assays for parasites

SpeciesSpecimenTechnologyTargetaStatusbConventional methodSensitivity vs. conventional methodTurnaround time vs. conventional methodReference(s)eCommentsd
Plasmodium BloodeLightCycler FRET18s rRNAASR, HBMicroscopyEqualEqual 124, A, B, CASR does not identify species
BloodiCycler TaqMan18s rRNAHBMicroscopyEqualEqual 255 Does not identify species in one test
BloodABI 7700 TaqMan18s rRNAHBMicroscopyEqualEqual 372
Babesia BloodLightCycler FRETHBMicroscopy, serologyGreater, greaterEqual, faster 237 (modified)Serology total AB
Trypanosoma TissueLightCycler FRETkDNAExpmtlMicroscopyGreaterFaster 86 Research in mice
Leishmania CulturesLightCycler FRETkDNAExpmtlMicroscopyGreaterFaster 340 Identify cultured parasites
Blood, bone marrow, tissueLightCycler FRET18S rRNAHBMicroscopy cultureGreaterFaster 441 Identifies by MCA
BloodABI Prism TaqMan18S rRNAHBCultureGreaterFaster 40 Quantitation of parasitemia
Toxoplasma Blood, serum, CSF, amniotic fluidLightCycler FRETB1 geneHBCulture, serologyEqual, greaterFaster, faster 82, 312, DGood for acute toxoplasmosis
Trichomonas UrineLight-Cycler FRETβ-Tubulin geneHBMicroscopy, cultureGreater, equalEqual, faster 165 Urine vs. vaginal swabs a question
Giardia, Entamoeba, Cryptosporidium Cultures, cysts, stooliCycler TaqManSSU rRNAHBMicroscopy, antigen detectionGreater, equalEqual, equal 34, 516, 517Multiplex assay, limited data
Entamoeba StoolLightCycler FRETrRNAHBMicroscopy, antigen detectionGreater, equalEqual, equal 34 Separates E. dispar and E. histolytica
Encephalitozoon StoolLightCycler FRET16S rRNAHBMicroscopy (cannot identify species)GreaterEqual 548 Identifies by MCA
Enterocytozoon StoolLightCycler FRET16S rRNAHBMicroscopy (cannot identify species)GreaterEqualEIdentifies E. bieneusi by MCA
StoolABI Prism 7700 TaqManSSU rRNAHBMicroscopy (cannot identify species)GreaterSlowe 311 Quantitates E. bieneusi
  • a kDNA, kinetoplast DNA; SSU, small subunit.

  • b HB, home brew; Expmtl, experimental.

  • c A, R. U. Manson, K. A. Mangold, R. B. Thomason, Jr., E. Koay, L. R. Peterson, and K. Kaul, Program Abstr. 43rd Intersci. Conf. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, abstr. P-414, 2003; B, A. Muyombwe, I. Lundgren, L. M. Sloan, J. E. Rosenblatt, P. G. Kremsner, S. Borrmann, and S. Issifou, Program Abstr. 52nd Meet. Am. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., abstr. 744, 2003; C, J. E. Rosenblatt, A. Muyombwe, L. M. Sloan, P. Petmitr, and S. Looareesuman, Program Abstr. 11th Int. Cong. Infect. Dis., abstr. 14.006, 2004; D, L. M. Sloan, P. S. Mitchell, R. Patel, and J. E. Rosenblatt, Program Abstr. 101st Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol., abstr. C-312, 2001; E, N. L. Wengenack, D. M. Wolk, S. K. Schneider, L. M. Sloan, S. P. Buckwalter, and J. E. Rosenblatt, Program Abstr. 103rd Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol., abstr. C-283, 2003.

  • d MCA, melting curve analysis.

  • e Whole blood or spotted on filter paper or IsoCode Stix.