Examples of internal controls used in real-time PCR assays

ControlGene targetsaReferences
Housekeeping genesAlbumin,β -globin, 18S and 28S rRNA, β- and λ-actins, cyclophilins, GAPDH, α- and β-tubulins, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase or L32 257, 326, 489
    Heterologous controlNeomycin phosphotransferase gene, phocine herpesvirus, bacteriophage λ DNA 432, 466, 468, 485, 516
    Homologous controlControl contains the same flanking nucleic acid sequence at the target nucleic acid to which the PCR primers anneal, but a different internal sequence to which a probe anneals 108, 257, 432, 501
  • a GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.