TABLE 4.

Single cases of human infections due to E. cuniculi confirmed by molecular analyses

Immune status and countryClinical manifestationsSite(s) of infection and/or specimenE. cuniculi strainYrReference(s)
HIV-infected patients
    United KingdomAbdominal pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, fever, cough, renal failureKidney, urineIII1994 1, 141, 143
    United StatesFever, cough, emesis, insomnia, sinus congestion, severe dry eyes, blurred visionUrine, sputumIII1995 63, 66, 85
    GermanyKeratoconjunctivitis, sinusitis, rhinitisUrine, sputum stool, nasal discharge, duodenal biopsyNDa1995 111
    SwitzerlandHeadache, visual impairment, cognitive impairment, nausea, vomitingCerebrospinal fluid, stool, sputum, urineI1997 321
    United StatesDizziness, fever, nausea, abdominal pain, diarrheaAdrenal glands, kidneys, brain, heart, trachea, urinary bladder, spleen, lymph nodesIII1997 196
    SwitzerlandNoneUrineI1997 192
    MexicoPneumonitis, otitis mediaUrine, respiratory specimen, stoolIII1997 73, 192
    SwitzerlandNoneUrineI1997 73, 192
    SwitzerlandConjunctivitis, sinusitis, seizure disorderUrineI1997 192
    SwitzerlandRenal insufficiency, leucocyturia, erythrocyturiaUrineI1997 192
    SwitzerlandNoneUrine, respiratory specimenI1997 192
    ItalyChronic sinusitis, bilateral keratoconjunctivitisNasal epitheliumI1998 238
    FranceVisual impairmentCerebrospinal fluid, urine, sputum, stool, duodenal biopsyND2000 105
    ChileCough, feverBronchoalveolar lavage, transbronchial biopsyND (IIIb)2001 328
    SpainFever, asthenia, abdominal pain, diarrheaStool, urine, sputumIII2001 68
    ItalyFever, myalgia, poor general conditionKidney, liver, lymph nodes, spleen, adrenal medulla, brain, ovaryIII2002 288
HIV-negative patients, immunocompromised (undergoing organ transplantation)
    CanadaFever, keratoconjunctivitis, allograft tenderness,Urine, stool, sputum, conjunctival scrapingsIII2002 200
    MexicoCough, fever, diarrhea, thoracic pain, extreme weaknessLiver, kidneyIII2003 115
    United StatesRespiratory distressLung biopsyIII2004 283
HIV-negative patients, otherwise immunocompromisedc
    SwitzerlandIris tumorTumor biopsyI2005 158
  • a ND, not determined.

  • b E. cuniculi strain III deduced from clinical and epidemiological findings (see the text).

  • c Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia.