TABLE 2.

Cultivation of Lyme borreliae from clinical samples

SiteRepresentative culture yield (%) (reference[s])
United StatesEurope
Skin
    Erythema migrans>50a (25, 200, 204, 214, 227, 303, 327, 369)≥40b (14, 31, 140, 165, 209, 237, 256, 333, 342, 380)
    Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicansNDh≥22c (14, 258, 342)
    Borrelial lymphocytomaND24 (188)
Cerebrospinal fluidND10d (60, 147, 237, 342)
Synovial fluidAnecdotalAnecdotal
Blood>40e (367, 368)1.2f to 9g (13, 189)
  • a Highest reported yield, 86% (25).

  • b Highest reported yield, 88% (342).

  • c Highest reported yield, 60% (342).

  • d Highest reported yield, 17% (342).

  • e Plasma (high volume, ≥9 ml) of untreated adult United States patients with erythema migrans.

  • f Plasma (low volume, ≤3 ml) of European adults with erythema migrans.

  • g Plasma (low volume, <1 ml) of untreated European children with erythema migrans.

  • h ND, no data available.