TABLE 2.

Selected studies on prevalence rates of E. bieneusi in HIV-infected persons

Geographic areaSpecimen; diagnostic methodaNo. of patients examined; patients' characteristicsPrevalence (%)Yr (reference[s])
Africa
    Cameroon (Yaunde)Stool; LM66; chronic diarrhea9b1997 (241)
    Niger (Niame)Stool; LM60; 41 with diarrhea71993 (27)
    Zimbabwe (Harare)Stool; LM129; hospitalized with diarrhea131995 (300)
    ZimbabweFormalin-fixed stool; PCR74; 45 with diarrhea461997 (41)
    Zambia (Lusaka)Stool; LM69; chronic diarrhea231995 (91)
    Mali (Bamako)Stool; LM, partially confirmed by TEM88; 80% with chronic diarrhea321997 (185)
    TanzaniaStool; LM, TEM86; chronic diarrhea31999 (44)
    Zimbabwe (Harare)Stool; LM, PCR88; diarrhea longer than 1 week18 (LM), 51 (PCR)1999 (133)
    Mali (Bamako)Stool; LM, IFAT, PCR61; diarrhea13.12002 (10)
Americas
    United States (Washington, D.C.)Intestinal biopsies; EM, TEM67; chronic unexplained diarrhea301990 (218)
    United States (Texas)Duodenal biopsies; TEM55; chronic diarrhea331993 (227)
51; without chronic diarrhea25
    United States (Atlanta, Ga.)Stool; LM65; diarrhea111993 (128)
65; without diarrhea2
    United States (New York)Intestinal biopsies; TEM34; AIDS patients44b1994 (160, 161)
194; diarrhea39b
    United States (New York)Duodenal biopsies; PCR, confirmation by TEM68; diarrhea371996 (62)
43; without diarrhoea2.3
    United States (California)Stool; LM8,439; diarrhea, yr 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996.8.8, 9.7, 6.6, 2.91998 (53)
    Brazil (Fortaleza)Stool; LM79; with diarrhea6b1994 (332)
82; without diarrhea1b
    Brazil (Rio de Janeiro)Stool; LM13; chronic unexplained diarrhea46b1996 (25)
    Brazil (Rio de Janeiro)Stools, duodenal or ileal biopsies40; chronic diarrhea27.52000 (24)
    Peru (Lima)Stool; LM2672; diarrhea3.92003 (275)
Australasia
    Australia (New South Wales)Duodenal biopsies; LM109; chronic diarrhea291993 (99)
confirmed by EM71; without diarrhea1.4
    Australia (Victoria)Stool; LM, TEM139; diarrhea3.51993 (239)
    ThailandStool; LM, TEM66; chronic diarrhea33.31998 (313)
    Thailand (Bangkok)Stool; LM; TEM288; diarrhea112001 (317)
    ThailandStool; LM, TEM95; children with diarrhea25.32002 (312)
    IndiaStool; LM120; diarrhea2.52002 (199)
Europe
    The NetherlandsDuodenal biopsies; LM partially confirmed by TEM55; unexplained diarrhea 38: without diarrhea27b 3b1991 (92)
    The NetherlandsStool; LM143; diarrhea7.71993 (301)
    FranceDuodenal biopsies; LM66; chronic diarrhea21993 (56)
    France (Paris)Stool, intestinal biopsies; LM18; chronic unexplained diarrhea501993 (203)
    France (Nice)Stool; LM46; chronic diarrhea241995 (16)
    Italy (Apulia)Stool; LM56; diarrhea2b1995 (187)
    ItalyIntestinal biopsies; EM, TEM72; chronic diarrhea4.21996 (309)
    Germany (Cologne)Intestinal biopsies; PCR, Southern hybridization46; diarrhea221996 (110)
    Germany (Hamburg)Stool; LM50; diarrhea, hospitalized patients321998 (271)
47; without diarrhea4
    England (London)Intestinal biopsies; LM, EM59; diarrhea14b1991 (221)
    England (northwest)Stool, intestinal biopsies; LM confirmed by TEM63; diarrhea141995 (166)
    Spain (Madrid)Stool; LM, confirmation by PCR48 children; chronic diarrhea21997 (69)
    Sweden (Stockholm)Duodenal biopsies; LM72; abdominal symptoms of unknown cause3b1998 (281)
    SwitzerlandStool; LM partially confirmed164; chronic diarrhea (1992-1994)10.71999 (324)
by TEM and PCR156; chronic diarrhea (1994-1996)5.3
949; without diarrhea0.4
    PortugalStool; LM, PCR215; diarrhea42.8c2001 (98)
  • a LM, light microscopy; TEM, transmission electron microscopy.

  • b Intestinal microsporidia, species not stated.

  • c A total of 92 samples were positive for microsporidia; 20 of 69 isolates that were further characterized by PCR were E. bieneusi, and 49 were E. intestinalis.