TABLE 4.

Clinical manifestations of ReA and their frequencya

Clinical manifestationSymptom (frequency [%])
Peripheral arthritis syndromeLarge lower limb nondestructive acute asymmetric oligoarthritis
Chronic-recurrent arthritis (15-30%)
Sausage digits (16%)
Enthesopatic syndromeHeel pain, Achilles tendonitis, pain at the tibial tubercle (30%)
Pelvic and axial syndromeInflammatory low back pain: sacroiliitis (14-49%), spondylitis (12-26%), inflammation of ligamentous or tendinous insertions in the ischial tuberosity (15-30%)
Extramusculoskeletal syndromeEye: conjunctivitis (35%), iritis (5%); keratitis, corneal ulceration, epiescleritis, retrobulbar neuritis and hyphema
Genitourinary: urethritis, prostatitis (80%), hemorrhagic cystitis, cervicitis
Gastrointestinal: diarrhea, endoscopic “bowel lesions” (25-70%)
Skin: keratoderma blennorrhagica (5-30%), circinate balanitis (20-4%), oral ulcers (5-10%), hyperkeratotic nails (6-12%), erythema nodosum
Cardiovascular system: aortic disease, EKG conduction abnormalities (5-14%)
Central nervous system peripheral/cranial nerve palsy, Parsonage Turner syndrome, motor deficits.
Renal: proteinuria, microhematuria, aseptic pyuria, glomerulonephritis, IgA nephropathy
  • a Data from references 7, 12, 76, 98, 103, and 183.