Similarity of the mechanisms involved in the entry, traffic, replication, and exit of L. pneumophila with respect to both amoebae and macrophagesa

Life cycle stageFree-living amoebaeMacrophages
EntryCoiling phagocytosis 35 Coiling phagocytosis120
TrafficNo phagosome-lysosome fusion 35 No phagosome-lysosome fusion120
PhagosomeAssociation with rough endoplasmic reticulum 3 Association with rough endoplasmic reticulum231
ReplicationIntraphagosomal 209 Intraphagosomal121
ExitHost cell lysis 209 Host cell lysis121
  • a The similarity suggests that the amoebae might have been the “evolutionary crib” that led to the adaptation of L. pneumophila to life within human macrophages.