TABLE 3.

P. falciparum CQ treatment failure in vivo for selected countries in Africa, 1996 to 2002

RegionCountryNo. of data points identifiedPeriodAge range (yr)Outcome classificationPeriod of follow-up (days)Median %CQ-PF (range)aMedian %CQ-TTF (range)aSource or reference
CentralCentral African Republic119980.5-5WHO 19961464WHO/AFRO 1998
Gabon11996-19981-55WHO 1973141929
Mozambique11999<5WHO 1973, 1996285826129
Zambia71998-20000.5-5WHO, 197314, one study 755 (33-70)42 (22-54)18, 23, WHO/AFRO 1998
Zimbabwe81996-1999NSbWHO 1973727 (8-33)19, 125, 127
SouthernBotswana319980.5-5WHO 19961425 (21-44)WHO/AFRO 1998
Eastern and great lakesBurundi119980-14WHO, 197374152
Ethiopia519980.5-5WHO 19961479 (51-93)WHO/AFRO 1998
Ethiopia combined with Eritrea51989-19911-80WHO 1973788 (82-94)4
Kenya3 for clinical, 1 for parasitologic outcomes1996-20010.5-5 for clinical, 2-12 for parasitologic outcomesWHO 1996, WHO 197314, 287164 (32-87)5; www.eanmat.org WHO/AFRO 1998
Kenya11996-2001All agesParasite clearance at day 14141841
Rwanda6 clinical, 4 parasitologic1999-2000<5WHO 19961481 (73-88)52 (19-60) www.eanmat.org , WHO/AFRO 1998
Tanzania91998-20020.5-5WHO 1996, day 14 parasite failure1455 (11-98)42 (17-71)66; www.eanmat.org , WHO/AFRO 1998
Tanzania21998-20021-14WHO 1973, day 14 parasite failure14, 2855 (11-98)42 (17-71)97, 218
Uganda17 clinical, 15 parasite outcome1996-20000.5-5WHO 1973, 19961441 (10-96)28 (9-89)56, 104, 105, 113, 137, 199; Kilian 1998 (Uganda MoH report)
Zanzibar22000-2001<5WHO 19961460-61 www.eanmat.org
WestBurkina Faso4 clinical, 2 parasite outcome1998-20000.5-5WHO 1973, 19961442 (18-65)18 (12-23)29, 204, WHO/AFRO 1998
Cameroon41994-20011-55WHO, 19737, 1431 (8-53)29, 114, 205
Cote d'lvoire11996>10WHO 1973283399
The Gambia11994-19960.5-10Day 7 and 28 parasite failures2823, 50138
Ghana21999-20000.5-5WHO 1973, 19961458 (56-61)41 (29-53)59, 63
Guinea-Bissau119980.5-5WHO 19961411WHO/AFRO 1998
Mali51997<5WHO 1973, 19961425 (20-30)21 (18-24)53, 167
Nigeria119970.5-5WHO 197314, 28648
Nigeria220011-12WHO 197314, 2831 (21-42)191
Nigeria21996AllWHO 197314, 2827 (13-54)68
Senegal41996-19981-55WHO 19731442 (24-59)13 (10-16)29; WHO/AFRO 1998
NorthernSomalia22002AllWHO, 19961456 (35-77)42 (33-51)217
Sudan11994-1995>5WHO 1973141087
  • a CQ-PF, CQ parasitologic failure (either R1-R3 or cumulative parasite failure); CQ-TTF, clinical failure (either ETF + LTF or cumulative clinical failure).

  • b NS, not stated.