Baseline compliance rates in hand hygiene, according to the agent

Type of ward(s)Type of agent(s)aBaseline compliance rate (%)Reference(s)
Pediatric ICUSoap30.1118
All wardsSoap30.2592
Long-term careSoap31.9558
All wardsSoap32334
Pediatric ICUSoap34196
Medical ICUSoap38.110
All wardsSoap45293
Surgical ICUSoap45429
ICU and oncology wardSoap56515
Medical ICUSoap60.7266
Neonatal ICU and infant rehydration unitPlain soap29308
ICUMedicated soap (4% chlorhexidine)42117
ICUPlain soap and alcohol38b117
ICUPlain soap and alcohol40.2622
Emergency departmentPlain soap and isopropanol (60%)32.3370
AllPlain soap and isopropanol (70%)48439
ICUMedicated soap (chlorhexidine) and alcohol28.7176
  • a “Soap” was always assumed to be meant when “hand washing” was mentioned in a study; it may include plain and medicated soap.

  • b Low compliance was explained by incorrect and rare use of alcohol.