TABLE 3.

Mycotoxin-related illnesses postulated to affect animals and humansa

ToxinPrincipal fungusPrimary disease
Probable or definite agents
    Ergot alkaloidsCladosporium purpureaErgotism (gangrenous and convulsive)
    AflatoxinsAspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticusAflatoxicosis, hepatitis, liver cancer, childhood cirrhosis
    Trichothecenes (T-2 toxin, DAS)bFusarium, Myrothecium, Trichoderma, Cephalosporium spp.ATA, stachybotryotoxicosis, others?b
    ZearalenoneFusarium spp.Premature thelarchec
    Vomitoxin, deoxynivalenolF. graminearumAnorexiac
    OchratoxinAspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium viridicatumBEN, urinary tract tumors
    SterigmatocystinAspergillus versicolarCancerc
    ErgovalineAcremonium coenophialumFescuec
    AmatoxinsToxic mushroomsMushroom poisoning
Possible agents
    AflatoxinAspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticusImmunosuppressionc
    Fusarium metabolitesFusarium spp.Akakabi-byo disease
    Fusarium metabolitesFusarium spp.Onyalai disease
    Fusarium metabolitesFusarium equisetiKashin-Beck disease
    FumonisinsFusarium moniliformeEsophageal cancer, equine leukomalacia
    3-Nitropropionic acidArthrinium spp.Pediatric neurotoxicity
    Cyclopiazonic acidAspergillus, PenicilliumKodua poisoning
    PenitremAspergillus, PenicilliumTremors
    CitrininPenicillium citrininRenal damagec
    RubratoxinPenicillium rubrumHepatoxicityc
    Secalonic acid DPenicillium oxalicumTeratogenicc
    PatulinPenicillium expansumTumorsc
Unlikely or wrong agents
    CyclosporinsVarious speciesAIDS
    GliotoxinsAspergillus, Trichoderma spp.AIDS
    ZearalenoneFusarium spp.Cervical cancer
    CitreoviridinPenicillium spp.Cardiac beriberi
    T-2 toxinFusarium spp.Pellagra
    AflatoxinAspergillus spp.Reye's syndrome, kwashiorkor
  • a Adapted from references 180, 213, and 334.

  • b See Table 4.

  • c Supportive evidence in animals, not humans.