TABLE 1.

Effects of opiates on immune functions in vivo and in vitro

Mode of adminis- tration and modelImmune functionaReceptor involve- mentaReference(s)
In vivo
    Rodents↓Phagocytosis+168, 191, 240
↓Antibody production+32, 120, 172, 184
↓Mitogen-stimulated proliferation+18, 19
↓NK/CTL activity+18, 27, 207, 258
↓Cytokine production+27, 125, 194
↑Serum IL-6 levels+83, 84
↑LPS-induced sepsisNE195
↑IL-12+173
↓DTH+31
    Humans↓PhagocytosisNE239
↓NK activityNE265
↓ADCCNE265
    Monkeys↓ChemotaxisNE121
↓PMN killingNE121
    Pigs↓DTHNE148, 189
In vitro
    Mice↓Phagocytosis+191, 235
↓Cell proliferation+18, 19, 203
↓Induction of antibody+60, 72, 237
↓Cytokine production+4, 22, 98, 238
    Humans↓Chemotaxis+71
↓SuperoxideNE176
↓↑Cytokine production+38, 39, 179
↓↑Chemokine production+237, 259
↑Phagotocytosis+178
  • a ↑, increase; ↓, decrease; NE, not examined; CTL, cytotoxic T lymphocyte; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; DTH, delayed-type hypersensitivity; ADCC, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity; PMN, polymorphonuclear leukocyte.