TABLE 1.

Effects of opiates on immune functions in vivo and in vitro

Mode of adminis- tration and modelImmune functionaReceptor involve- mentaReference(s)
In vivo
    Rodents↓Phagocytosis+ 168, 191, 240
↓Antibody production+ 32, 120, 172, 184
↓Mitogen-stimulated proliferation+ 18, 19
↓NK/CTL activity+ 18, 27, 207, 258
↓Cytokine production+ 27, 125, 194
↑Serum IL-6 levels+ 83, 84
↑LPS-induced sepsisNE 195
↑IL-12+ 173
↓DTH+ 31
    Humans↓PhagocytosisNE 239
↓NK activityNE 265
↓ADCCNE 265
    Monkeys↓ChemotaxisNE 121
↓PMN killingNE 121
    Pigs↓DTHNE 148, 189
In vitro
    Mice↓Phagocytosis+ 191, 235
↓Cell proliferation+ 18, 19, 203
↓Induction of antibody+ 60, 72, 237
↓Cytokine production+ 4, 22, 98, 238
    Humans↓Chemotaxis+ 71
↓SuperoxideNE 176
↓↑Cytokine production+ 38, 39, 179
↓↑Chemokine production+ 237, 259
↑Phagotocytosis+ 178
  • a ↑, increase; ↓, decrease; NE, not examined; CTL, cytotoxic T lymphocyte; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; DTH, delayed-type hypersensitivity; ADCC, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity; PMN, polymorphonuclear leukocyte.