TABLE 7.

Effects of nicotine and cigarette smoke on host resistance mechanisms in vivo and in vitro

Mode of administrationImmune functionaReference(s)
In vivo
    Rats↓Antibody-forming cells66, 67
↓Intracellular Ca2+ stores101
↓Lymphocyte proliferation218
↑T-cell anergy67, 218
↓Antimicrobial activity217
In vitro
    Humans↓NK activity156
↓Cytokine production167
    Mice↓Splenocyte proliferation74, 75
↓↑Cytokine production74, 75, 136
↓Antimicrobial activity136
  • a ↑, increase; ↓, decrease; ↑↓, both increase and decrease.