TABLE 7.

Effects of nicotine and cigarette smoke on host resistance mechanisms in vivo and in vitro

Mode of administrationImmune functionaReference(s)
In vivo
    Rats↓Antibody-forming cells 66, 67
↓Intracellular Ca2+ stores 101
↓Lymphocyte proliferation 218
↑T-cell anergy 67, 218
↓Antimicrobial activity 217
In vitro
    Humans↓NK activity 156
↓Cytokine production 167
    Mice↓Splenocyte proliferation 74, 75
↓↑Cytokine production 74, 75, 136
↓Antimicrobial activity 136
  • a ↑, increase; ↓, decrease; ↑↓, both increase and decrease.