TABLE 2.

PCR methods developed for detection of Y. enterocolitica in clinical, food, and environmental samples

SampleGene regionSample preparationDetection systemReference
Blood, synovial fluidIcrEProteinase K treatmentSingle PCR, agarose gel150
BloodvirF, ailPreenrichment + proteinase KSingle PCR, agarose gel40
FecesystDNA purificationSingle PCR, agarose gel67
Food, wateryadAPreenrichment + IMSa + proteinase KNested PCR, agarose gel/colorimetric detection79
FoodvirF, ailCold enrichment for 3 wk + EDTA/DNA purification/silica purificationMultiplex PCR, agarose gel75
Feces, tonsilsinvPreenrichment + IMS + proteinase K/DNA purificationSingle PCR, agarose gel/colorimetric detection119
FecesvirF, ail, ystDNA purificationMultiplex PCR, agarose gel59
WaterailPreenrichment + DNA purificationSeminested PCR, polyacrylamide gel126
TonsilsvirF, ailPreenrichment + NaOH treatmentNested PCR, agarose gel144
FecesvirF, ail, inv,     rfbCDNA purificationMultiplex PCR, agarose gel161
FoodystPreenrichment + Triton X-100Single PCR, agarose gel154
FoodvirF, ailPreenrichment + proteinase KMultiplex PCR, agarose gel10
FoodvirF, ailDNA purificationMultiplex PCR, agarose gel112
Tissue, feces16S rRNADNA purificationSeminested PCR, colorimetric detection146
Food16S rRNA, yadAPreenrichment + buoyant-density gradient centrifugationMultiplex PCR, agarose gel89
Water, sewageyadAPreenrichment + proteinase KNested PCR, agarose gel153
Feces, foodailPreenrichment + DNA purificationSingle PCR, fluorogenic detection (TaqMan)73
FoodailPreenrichment + buoyant-density gradient centrifugation + NaOH treatmentSingle PCR, agarose gel86
FoodystPreenrichment + DNA purificationSingle PCR, fluorogenic detection (TaqMan)151
FoodystPreenrichment + DNA purificationSeminested PCR, agarose gel114a
Blood16S rRNADNA purificationSingle PCR, fluorogenic detection (TaqMan)134
FecesyopTPreenrichment + DNA purificationSingle PCR, agarose gel6
FoodyadA, ailPreenrichment + silica purificationMultiplex PCR, agarose gel20
FoodailPreenrichment + DNA purificationSingle PCR, fluorogenic detection (TaqMan)20
Blood16S rRNADNA purificationMultiplex PCR, fluorogenic detection (TaqMan)135
  • a IMS, immunomagnetic separation.