TABLE 2.

PCR methods developed for detection of Y. enterocolitica in clinical, food, and environmental samples

SampleGene regionSample preparationDetection systemReference
Blood, synovial fluid IcrE Proteinase K treatmentSingle PCR, agarose gel 150
Blood virF, ail Preenrichment + proteinase KSingle PCR, agarose gel 40
Feces yst DNA purificationSingle PCR, agarose gel 67
Food, water yadA Preenrichment + IMSa + proteinase KNested PCR, agarose gel/colorimetric detection 79
Food virF, ail Cold enrichment for 3 wk + EDTA/DNA purification/silica purificationMultiplex PCR, agarose gel 75
Feces, tonsils inv Preenrichment + IMS + proteinase K/DNA purificationSingle PCR, agarose gel/colorimetric detection 119
Feces virF, ail, yst DNA purificationMultiplex PCR, agarose gel 59
Water ail Preenrichment + DNA purificationSeminested PCR, polyacrylamide gel 126
Tonsils virF, ail Preenrichment + NaOH treatmentNested PCR, agarose gel 144
Feces virF, ail, inv,     rfbC DNA purificationMultiplex PCR, agarose gel 161
Food yst Preenrichment + Triton X-100Single PCR, agarose gel 154
Food virF, ail Preenrichment + proteinase KMultiplex PCR, agarose gel 10
Food virF, ail DNA purificationMultiplex PCR, agarose gel 112
Tissue, feces16S rRNADNA purificationSeminested PCR, colorimetric detection 146
Food16S rRNA, yadAPreenrichment + buoyant-density gradient centrifugationMultiplex PCR, agarose gel 89
Water, sewage yadA Preenrichment + proteinase KNested PCR, agarose gel 153
Feces, food ail Preenrichment + DNA purificationSingle PCR, fluorogenic detection (TaqMan) 73
Food ail Preenrichment + buoyant-density gradient centrifugation + NaOH treatmentSingle PCR, agarose gel 86
Food yst Preenrichment + DNA purificationSingle PCR, fluorogenic detection (TaqMan) 151
Food yst Preenrichment + DNA purificationSeminested PCR, agarose gel 114a
Blood16S rRNADNA purificationSingle PCR, fluorogenic detection (TaqMan) 134
Feces yopT Preenrichment + DNA purificationSingle PCR, agarose gel 6
Food yadA, ail Preenrichment + silica purificationMultiplex PCR, agarose gel 20
Food ail Preenrichment + DNA purificationSingle PCR, fluorogenic detection (TaqMan) 20
Blood16S rRNADNA purificationMultiplex PCR, fluorogenic detection (TaqMan) 135
  • a IMS, immunomagnetic separation.