TABLE 5.

Detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in natural samples by PCR and culture methods

SampleNo. of samplesReference
TotalCulture positiveaPCR positive
Clinical
    Pig tonsils185485846
    Pig tonsils25209020
    Pig feces25508020
    Mesenteric lymph nodes257010320
Food
    Pig tongues51404745
    Minced pork25546345
    Pig offal34172147
    Chicken430048
    Fish2000048
    Lettuce1010348
    Porkb30065072
    Pig tongues15710152
    Ground pork1003247152
    Ground beef1002331152
    Tofu5006152
    Ground pork350013320
    Chitterling350827820
Environmental
    Water105111126
    Slaughterhouse8951247
  • a The pathogenicity of the isolates has been confirmed.

  • b Except pig tongues and offal.