TABLE 6.

Examples of selected urinary catheter biofilm control treatments

ReferenceTreatmentResults
190Systemic ciprofloxacin therapy in catheterized patientInhibited catheter plugging for 10 wk
191Latex catheter coated with either silicone, hydrogel, or silver-hydrogel in in vitro assayRate of swarming by Proteus mirabilis over catheter surface slowest (most effective) on silicone, highest (least effective) on hydrogel
142Catheters coated with either hydrogel, silver, silicone, or Teflon in model bladder system containing Proteus mirabilisSilicone provided longest time to blockage (most effective); hydrogel-silver had the shortest time to blockage (least effective); none completely resisted colonization
141Urease inhibitors (acetohydroxamic acid [1 mg/ml] and fluorofamide [1 mg/ml]) in model bladder system containing Proteus mirabilisBoth treatments lowered calcium and magnesium concentrations on catheter surface and reduced urine pH from 9.1 to 7.6
188Chlorhexidine (200 μg/ml); mandelic acid (1%); lactic acid (1%); mandelic acid + lactic acid (0.5% each); and providone iodine (1%) in model bladder system containing Citrobacter diversus, P. aeruginosa, and Enterobacter faecalisMandelic acid and mandelic acid + lactic acid reduced biofilms for all three organisms
145Tobramycin (200 μg/ml) in model system containing P. aeruginosaTreatment prolonged lag phase and slowed biofilm formation rate
149Tobramycin (1,000 μg/ml) in model system containing silko-latex catheter discs and P. aeruginosaTreatment resulted in 3-log reduction of biofilm; planktonic cells completely inactivated at 50 μg/ml
153Systemic amdinocillin at increasing concns in catheterized rabbit model systemIneffective at levels below 400 mg/kg
157Ciprofloxacin-loaded liposomes in hydrogel coatings on silicone catheters in a catheterized rabbit model inoculated with E. coliTreatment increased time to urinary tract infection (50%) compared to untreated hydrogel-coated catheter
95Various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria exposed to catheter segments containing a nitrofurazone matrix coating in an in vitro assayAll strains except P. aeruginosa inhibited to some extent by the treatment
94Various multidrug-resistant gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria exposed to catheter segments containing a nitrofurazone coating in an in vitro assayAll strains except vancomycin-resistant enterococci inhibited by the treatment