TABLE 2.

Apparatuses that have been used for growing and testing biofilms

ApparatusOrganism(s) testedFlow dynamicsSubstratumMethod for removing and quantifying biofilmReference
Modified Robbins device Pseudomonas pseudomallei Batch/mixingSilastic disksMethod of removal not given; viable count 208
Calgary biofilm device P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, E. coli Batch/mixingPlastic pegsSonicate peg, then viable count 26
Disk reactorGram-negative bacteriaBatch/mixingTeflon couponsSonicate, vortex, homogenize, then viable or direct count 54
CDC biofilm reactorGram-negative bacteriaContinuous/open systemNeedleless connectors (plastic)Sonicate, vortex, homogenize, then viable or direct count 144
Perfused biofilm fermentor Candida albicans Continuous/open systemCellulose-acetate filtersShake in sterile water, then viable count 11
Model bladderGram-negative bacteriaContinuous/open systemUrinary cathetersDirect examination by SEM or TEMa or by chemical analysis 195
  • a SEM, scanning electron microscopy; TEM, transmission electron microscopy.