TABLE 2.

Apparatuses that have been used for growing and testing biofilms

ApparatusOrganism(s) testedFlow dynamicsSubstratumMethod for removing and quantifying biofilmReference
Modified Robbins devicePseudomonas pseudomalleiBatch/mixingSilastic disksMethod of removal not given; viable count208
Calgary biofilm deviceP. aeruginosa, S. aureus, E. coliBatch/mixingPlastic pegsSonicate peg, then viable count26
Disk reactorGram-negative bacteriaBatch/mixingTeflon couponsSonicate, vortex, homogenize, then viable or direct count54
CDC biofilm reactorGram-negative bacteriaContinuous/open systemNeedleless connectors (plastic)Sonicate, vortex, homogenize, then viable or direct count144
Perfused biofilm fermentorCandida albicansContinuous/open systemCellulose-acetate filtersShake in sterile water, then viable count11
Model bladderGram-negative bacteriaContinuous/open systemUrinary cathetersDirect examination by SEM or TEMa or by chemical analysis195
  • a SEM, scanning electron microscopy; TEM, transmission electron microscopy.