TABLE 5.

Antimicrobial coating treatments that have been evaluated for the control of biofilms on central venous catheters (CVCs)

ReferenceTreatmentaEvaluation criteriabResultsc
45MR compared to CSPatient study, 356 MR-CVC compared to 382 CS-CVC, avg D = 8.4, roll tip or sonicationMR, 7.9% colonized, 0.3% BSI; CS, 22.8% colonized, 3.4% BSI; MR significantly more effective
124CS compared to untreated controlPatient study, 208 CS-CVC compared to 195 untreated control-CVC, avg D = 6, roll tipCS, 13.5% colonized, 1.0% BSI; control, 24.1% colonized, 4.7% BSI; CS significantly more effective
97TC compared to untreated controlPatient study, 97 TC-CVC compared to 81 untreated control-CVC, avg D = 7, roll tipTC, 2.06% colonized, no BSI; control, 13.6% colonized, no BSI; TC significantly more effective
10Silver ions compared to untreated controlPatient study, 34 SI-CVC compared to 33 untreated control-CVC, avg D = 4.49 (SI) and 4.06 (control), sonicationSI, 52.9% colonized; control, 57.6% colonized; no significant difference
19Silver(s) compared to untreated controlPatient study, 86 S-CVC compared to 79 untreated control-CVC, median D = 9 (S) and 8 (control), roll tipS, 14% colonized, 4.65% CAI; control, 22.8% colonized, 16.5% CAI; S significantly more effective
7Heparin compared to untreated controlPatient study, 13 H-CVC compared to 19 untreated control-CVC, D not given, semiquantitative and quantitative methodH, 31% colonized, no BSI; control, 74% colonized, 26.3% BSI; H significantly more effective
dCiprofloxacin compared to untreated controlLaboratory study, P. aeruginosa in a flow cell, D = 300 min>50% reduction in attachment compared to control
  • a MR, minocycline plus rifampin; CS, chlorhexidine plus silver sulfadiazine; TC, tridecylmethylammonium chloride plus cephalosporin.

  • b D, duration of catheter insertion (in days); SI, silver ion; S, silver; H, heparin. Roll tip method or sonication method used for quantification of catheter colonization.

  • c BSI, bloodstream infection; CAI, catheter-associated infection.

  • d Reference: C. Kwok, S. Hendricks, C. Wan, J. D. Bryers, B. D. Ratner, and T. Horbett, Proc. 23rd Int. Symp. Controlled Release Bioactive Mat., p. 230-231, 1996.