Characteristics of the three categories of malaria transmission

Type of malariaGeographical location(s)aMalaria inoculation ratesProtective immunity in the populationTransmission characteristics
Stable malariaSub-Saharan AfricaRegular, low to very highHigh in older age groups; low in children under 5 yearsPerennial or seasonal; regular contact between vectors and human hosts
Unstable malaria(Europe) and Mediterranean, Asia and Western Pacific, (North), Central and South America and CaribbeanIrregular, low to mediumUnreliable in older age groups; absent in children under 5 year oldPerennial or seasonal; irregular contact between vectors and human hosts
Epidemic malariaHighland areas of tropical Africa; Central Asia and Caucuses; Asia and Latin AmericaRising suddenly, low to mediumLow or absent in all age groupsVery variable, subject to sudden and rapid change
  • a Malaria is not at present endemic in the geographical locations shown in parenthesis.