TABLE 1.

Influence of environment, climate, and weather on cholera and V. cholerae dynamics

FactorClimate and/or weather driversInfluence(s)Representative reference(s)
TemperatureSeasons, interannual variabilityGrowth of V. cholerae, phytoplankton blooms, infection by temperate phages90; Lipp et al., Abstr. 101st Gen. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol.
SalinitySeasons, monsoons, ENSO, sea level riseGrowth of V. cholerae, seroconversion, expression of cholera toxin111, 148, 151
SunlightSeasons, monsoons, interannual variabilitySurvival of V. cholerae, phytoplankton blooms, induction of CTXφ47, 109
pHSeasons, interannual variability (phytoplankton growth)Growth of V. cholerae22
Fe3+Precipitation (runoff), atmospheric deposition (NAO)Growth of V. cholerae, expression of cholera toxin125, 126
Exogenous products of algal growthSeasons, monsoons, interannual variability in light, nutrientsSurvival of V. cholerae80, 144
ChitinSeasons, monsoons, zooplankton blooms (following phytoplankton)Growth of V. cholerae, attachment to exoskeletons71, 117