TABLE 2.

Genera and species of microsporidia known to infect immunodeficient humans

SpeciesClinical manifestation(s) in immunocompromised hostIn vitro culture achievedOther animals infected
Brachiola (Nosema) algerae Skin infection+Mosquitoes
Encephalitozoon cuniculi Keratoconjunctivitis, sinusitis, bronchitis, nephritis, peritonitis, hepatitis, intestinal infection, encephalitis+Rabbits, rodents, dogs, foxes, pigs, cats, leopards, monkeys
Encephalitozoon hellem Keratoconjunctivitis, sinusitis, bronchitis, nephritis, cystitis, prostatitis, urethritis+Parrots, budgerigars, lovebirds
Encephalitozoon intestinalis Keratoconjunctivitis, sinusitis, bronchitis, nephritis, chronic diarrhea, cholangitis+Goats, cows, dogs, donkeys, pigs
Enterocytozoon bieneusi Chronic diarrhea, cholangitis, sinusitisPigs, monkeys, rabbits
Nosema connori Disseminated infectionNot described
Nosema-likeMyositisNot described
Pleistophora spp.aMyositis
Trachipleistophora hominis Myositis, keratoconjunctivitis, sinusitis+Not described
Trachipleistophora anthropophthera Disseminated infection, including encephalitisNot described
Vittaforma corneae Disseminated infection+Not described
  • a Several different species of Pleistophora have been described from insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, etc. However, microsporidial species that are uninucleated throughout their life cycle and produce large numbers of spores contained within polysporophorous vesicles have also been included in the genus Pleistophora even though clear-cut taxonomic affinities of these microsporidia have not been established.