Table 5.

Summary of M. paratuberculosis vaccination studies in the last decade

Type of vaccine (vaccine straina)Animal species (no. in study)Route of inoculation and dose givenEffect of M. paratuberculosis vaccine on:Reference
Clinical signsEvidence of immune response
Heat killed (strain 18)Cattle (20)NRc NTc Antibody titers in vaccinated animals were detectable by 2 m postvaccination and were maintained for 15 m 271
Heat killed (5889 Bergey)Cattle (866)25–100 mg (dry wt), intramuscularPartial protection; vaccination reduced fecal sheddingVaccinated animals had increased antibody titers during the first 3 yr which declined by yr 5 174
Live attenuated (316 F)Sheep (580)5 mg (wet wt), subcutaneousPartial protection; no. of animals with clinical symptoms decreased over 3 yr.NT 82
Heat killed (Lelystadb)Cattle (176)5 mg, subcutaneous36/176 cows had both a positive fecal culture and histological lesions, whereas only 2 had histological lesions without concurrent positive culturesVaccinated, noninfected animals (126/176) tended to have a positive DTH response 313
Live attenuated (316 F)Sheep (17)103 CFU, subcutaneousPartial protection; vaccination reduced the no. and severity of bacteriological isolations and histological lesions in the intestineVaccinated animals displayed a strong and immediate increase in antibody titers within 1 wk, but infected animals delayed this response until 6 wk postinfection 166
Heat killed (5889 Bergey)Cattle (866)25–100 mg (dry wt), intramuscularPartial protection; vaccination reduced fecal sheddingVaccinated animals had increased antibody titers during the first 3 yr, which declined by yr 5 175
Heat killed (Lelystad)Cattle (499)5 mg, subcutaneousPartial protection; vaccination decreased both the no. of animals culled for clinical paratuberulosis and the percentage of animals with positive histologyNT 314
Live attenuated (316 F)Goats (20)NRNTVaccination induced a cellular immune response as measured by a lymphocyte proliferation assay 207
Heat killed (not reported)Cattle (652)NRPartial protection; vaccination reduced the no. of clinically infected animals by almost 90%NT 304
Heat killed (Field strain) and live attenuated (316 F)Cattle (28)1.5 ml of live vaccine or 1 ml of heat-killed vaccine, subcutaneousPartial protection; infection was confirmed in 1 of 9 vaccinated calves, 0 vaccinated calves had positive fecal culture resultsThree vaccinated calves had a positive ELISA, indicating antibody production; all calves had at least one positive IFN-γ ELISA 197
Live attenuated (316 F)Sheep (41)1 ml, subcutaneous, given 2 wk after oral inoculation with ca. 107 CFU of a virulent sheep strain of M. paratuberculosis Partial protection; 7/14 unvaccinated versus 2/14 vaccinated sheep developed clinical signs, and 11/14 unvaccinated and 8/14 vaccinated animals were positive forM. paratuberculosis by either histology or PCR testing (severity of lesions for the vaccinated group lower than for the unvaccinated group)Vaccinated sheep had higher IFN-γ and antibody production than did nonvaccinated sheep 145
  • a Mycobacterial strain used for vaccine preparation, as described in the reference.

  • b Vaccine prepared by the Central Veterinary Institute, Lelystad, The Netherlands.

  • c NR, not reported; NT, not tested.